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Overview “The Golden Years of the Indians”

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0 Oklahoma: Land of Contrasts
Chapter 7: New Land, New Beginnings ©2006 Clairmont Press

1 Overview “The Golden Years of the Indians”
The Five Nations resettled in Indian Territory are now an important part of the culture and economics of Oklahoma. Forts are established and trading and surveying of land take place. Texas wins independence (Mexico no longer borders Oklahoma) “The Golden Years of the Indians”

2 Sketch this map as best as you can in your notes

3 Negotiating Peace Cutthroat Gap Massacre (1833) –
led by Osage against Kiowa; led to push for negotiations and military force to stop attacks General Henry Leavenworth led 4000 highly armed and ornamented mounted troops (dragoons) to region to impress Indians with their military power (1834) Camp Mason (1835) established for further negotiations – ended with treaty to allow peace among tribes and with traders


5 New Forts Fort Coffee Fort Wayne Fort Durant Fort Arbuckle
near Swallow Rock on Arkansas River – served as entry point for relocated Choctaw, site for stopping whisky imports; became academy for Choctaw boys Fort Wayne (1838), Fort Durant (1842), and Fort Arbuckle (1851) founded to protect Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Fort Coffee Fort Wayne Fort Durant Fort Arbuckle

6 Surveying the Land Confusion and conflict resulted from treaties signed without precise land survey Isaac McCoy (1831) commissioned to survey Cherokee Nation Full surveys not complete until 1866

7 Surrounding Changes Panhandle claimed by Mexico until Texas’ claim in 1836 Texans refused to follow Mexican laws (no slavery, convert to Catholicism) and stop American immigrants Battle of the Alamo (1836): Texans defeated but became legendary Mexico (Gen. Santa Anna) defeated at San Jacinto and Texans won independence Statehood of Arkansas (1836) and Texas (1845) resulted in relocation of 10,000 Native Americans to Indian Territory

8 Section 2: Adapting to Indian Territory
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: How did the various tribes settle and govern themselves in Indian Territory?

9 Adapting to Indian Territory
Condition of Indians Most had lost all possessions; many had died or were sick U.S. promises for tools, household goods, livestock, money, etc. were not fulfilled Crude shelters were made, but food was scarce Many tribal leaders died in conflicts before removal

10 Needs of Indians The Five Nations
Government had to be established to regain order Farms, homes, towns, schools had to be built Some had money; some did not

11 Choctaw 1825: 1833 Wheelock Academy 1834: 1860
Choctaw constitution written in Mississippi 1833 Wheelock Academy First Choctaw school 1834: site for national council and new constitution – bill of rights added 1860 Capital established in Doaksville Government led by 27-member council

12 Choctaw Newspapers: Slaves were used as labor on growing plantations
The Choctaw Telegraph (1848) Choctaw Intelligencer (1850) Slaves were used as labor on growing plantations Fort Towson (1854) became capital as population moved toward Red River. Major fort for Chickasaw and Choctaw. Light Horsemen policed the area – carried few supplies and no heavy equipment

13 Creek Upper Creeks (1836-1837); Homes were log cabins
Muscogee Confederacy relocated the Creek into 2 groups: Lower Creeks (1827); along Arkansas & Verdigris rivers in NE Indian Territory Upper Creeks ( ); along Canadian River Homes were log cabins Each town (talwa) had its own leader and government (chief, subchief, lawyers to enforce laws) 1839: the two groups created a National Council at High Springs; now Council Hill, OK

14 Muscogee Creek Nation Council Hill

15 Creek Light Horse 1860: First principal chiefs: became the policemen
constitution written with a central government First principal chiefs: Motey Kennard (Lower Creek); Echo Harjo (Upper Creek)

16 Chickasaw Chickasaw district was within in Choctaw Cyrus Harris
built home in Old Boggy Depot; Harris was governor ( & ) Raised many crops to sell; supplied emigrants to Texas and California (gold rush) Light Horsemen tried to stop desperados, whiskey runners, and raids of hostile Indians 1848 Methodist missionaries started Chickasaw Academy

17 Old Boggy Depot

18 Chickasaw Tishomingo constitution (1856-1906)
had three branches of government and four counties The Chickasaw and Choctaw Herald (1858) was published in Tishomingo City in English since most of the readers read and spoke English

19 Cherokee Arkansas (Western) Cherokee John Ross
led by John Jolly in 1820s -1838 John Ross was leader of Eastern Cherokee in 1820s and led development of constitutional government New compromise constitution joined the people on July 13, 1839 with Ross as principal chief Tahlequah became capital in 1840, but the two sides had trouble getting along

20 Cherokee Tahlequah

21 Seminole Seminole Refused to live under Creek government 1845
had trouble adjusting to cold climate Refused to live under Creek government 1845 treaty gave Seminole their own area to govern and protect their legal rights Most (along with their slaves) moved to area between Deep Fork and Canadian Rivers, though the issue of slaves and free blacks continued to be a problem

22 Cherokee

23 Ft. Cobb Fort Cobb built in Wichita Mountains to protect against hostile Plains Indians Eventually becomes Fort Sill (Major US Army base)

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