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Life in Indian Territory Chapter 6 All political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted.

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Presentation on theme: "Life in Indian Territory Chapter 6 All political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Life in Indian Territory Chapter 6 All political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit. -Constitution of the Chickasaw Nation

3 Menu  Maintaining Order  The Civilized in Uncivilized Land  Sequoyah  Governing the People  Mission Schools  Settling Other Tribes

4 Maintaining Order  Difficult conditions  Indian Territory not a part of U.S.  Fort Gibson main stronghold of territory No established towns Didn’t always get promised supplies Dishonest traders Arguments among tribes

5 The Civilized in Uncivilized Land Farmer-Hunters 1. Lived off the land 2. Preferred home sites along a river 3. 2 or 3 families would settle near each other for protection

6 Merchants & Educated Leaders Generally established themselves in towns along rivers. Established 3 important trading centers 1. Chouteau 2. Tahlequah 3. Doaksville

7 Indian Plantations Tribal members could make improvements to land, but only sell the improvements (never the land). Some with black slaves planted and raised: 1. Cotton 2. Sweet potatoes 3. Corn 4. Horses 5. Cattle

8 George Guess aka Sequoyah

9  Son of a Cherokee woman and Nicholas Gist (a friend of George Washington)  Crippled by hunting accident  Invented Cherokee syllabary, or alphabet  May not have developed alphabet had it not been for missionaries eager to translate the Bible.  Persecuted by tribal members and wife 1. They burned his cabin 2. Once she destroyed his papers, but he shrugged and started over  “Talking Leaves” consisted of 86 characters

10 Governing the People The three following ideas remained at the heart of the Indian way of life: 1. Common ownership of land 2. Sharing tribal resources 3. Rights of women

11 Cherokee Government  Seat of government – Tahlequah  Cherokee Advocate, the first newspaper in the Indian Territory  Treaty of 1846 recognized: 1. A United Cherokee Nation and 2. Pardoned past crimes by Cherokee Members Executive Branch – Principal Chief with Assistant PC & executive council Legislative Branch – National committee(2 members from 9 districts & council (3 members per district) Judicial Branch – Supreme court, circuit court and others as needed

12 Legal Rights: Right to be heard, to be told exact charges, to confront witnesses, speedy trial by jury, and not testify against oneself Religious Rights: free exercise of religious worship, but no one who “denied the being of a God or future state of reward and punishment” could hold office Schools: National Male Seminary and National Female Seminary opened in 1851 Cherokee government continued:

13 Creek (aka Muskogee) Government  Seat of Government – Okmulgee  Worked with missionaries to fund mission schools  Executive Branch – Principal chief  Legislative Branch – Council made of the two houses: House of Kings (1 per town) and House of Warriors (1 per 200 people)  Judicial Branch – High Court, 6 district courts

14 Choctaw Government Seat of government Seat of government Nahih Wayah Nahih Wayah  Executive Branch – Principal Chief and 3 district chiefs  Legislative Branch – Senate ( 4 per district) and House of Representatives (1 per 1,000 persons)  Judicial Branch – Supreme, circuit and county courts  Rights: to speedy and public jury trial, excessive bail prohibited, accused had right to be heard  Religious Rights: No provision except that there was no religious test for public office  Schools: academies provided in all districts opening after 1840

15 Chickasaw Government Seat of government Seat of government Tishomingo Tishomingo  Executive Branch – Governor  Legislative Branch – House of Representatives and Senate  Judicial Branch – Supreme, district, and county courts  Legal Rights: to speedy public trial by jury, no one forced to testify against oneself, excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments prohibited  Religious Rights: No religious test for holding office  Schools: Chickasaw Academy, Bloomfield School, Wapanucka Female Institute, & Colbert Institute

16 Mission Schools  Most major denominations such as:  Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians supported some type of mission work among the Native Americans  The first school opened in Indian Territory was at Union Mission in 1821 with 4 Osage children.  They taught the children various school subjects. The girls were taught homemaking skills. They made friends with the Indians and supported them in their efforts to save their tribal lands

17 Settling Other Tribes SeminoleComancheQuapawOttawaPeoriaDelaware (famous for being scouts and guides) AnadarkoWyandot

18 Oklahoma The History of an American State By Sue Blakey Clairmont Press Montgomery, Alabama Copyright 1995 Images: Flag, Sequoyah, 5 Civilized Tribe Photos agVignette.gif ges/v008p149photo.jpg&imgrefurl=http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v008/v008p149. html Five-Civilized-Tribes-Portraits.png


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