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The Doctrine of Discovery, Manifest Destiny, and Oregon Robert J. Miller Professor Lewis & Clark Law School Portland, Oregon.

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Presentation on theme: "The Doctrine of Discovery, Manifest Destiny, and Oregon Robert J. Miller Professor Lewis & Clark Law School Portland, Oregon."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Doctrine of Discovery, Manifest Destiny, and Oregon Robert J. Miller Professor Lewis & Clark Law School Portland, Oregon

2 Louisiana Purchase From Ambrose & Axtell, L&C Voyage of Discovery (1998)

3 Johnson v. McIntosh, 21 U.S. 543 (1823). Country settled on Discovery & Conquest Country settled on Discovery & Conquest Discovery limited tribal real property rights Discovery limited tribal real property rights Discovery limited tribal sovereign rights Discovery limited tribal sovereign rights

4 Jefferson’s Discovery policies 1792 – U.S. Right of Preemption 1792 – U.S. Right of Preemption – Tribes own land; U.S. will buy – Tribes own land; U.S. will buy 1804 – Limits of LA - Discovery principles 1804 – Limits of LA - Discovery principles 1808 wrote Congress U.S. has to buy the land from the “native proprietors” 1808 wrote Congress U.S. has to buy the land from the “native proprietors”

5 Jefferson’s Discovery policies 1792 U.S. exclusive control of tribal trade & political interactions 1792 U.S. exclusive control of tribal trade & political interactions 1804 Letter “Being now become sovereigns of the country” - subject to “Indian rights of occupancy” 1804 Letter “Being now become sovereigns of the country” - subject to “Indian rights of occupancy”

6 Lewis & Clark & Discovery Tribal speeches & sovereignty tokens Tribal speeches & sovereignty tokens Forts Mandan & Clatsop Forts Mandan & Clatsop Lewis branding iron Lewis branding iron

7 Fort Clatsop March 18, 1806 “The object of this list is, that through the medium of some civilized person who may see the same, it may be made known to the informed world, that the party consisting of the persons whose names are hereunto annexed, and who were sent out by the government of the U’ States in May 1804 to explore the interior of the Continent of North America, did penetrate the same by way of the Missouri and Columbia Rivers, to the discharge of the latter into the Pacific Ocean...."

8 Elements of Discovery First discovery - Actual occupancy First discovery - Actual occupancy Preemption/European title - Indian title Preemption/European title - Indian title Tribal sovereign & comm’l rts - Contiguity Tribal sovereign & comm’l rts - Contiguity Terra nullius - Conquest Terra nullius - Conquest Christianity - Civilization Christianity - Civilization

9 U.S. claims to the Pacific NW Robert Gray – 1792 Columbia Redidiva Robert Gray – 1792 Columbia Redidiva Lewis & Clark – Lewis & Clark – John Jacob Astor – Astoria 1811 John Jacob Astor – Astoria 1811

10 Manifest Destiny Special virtues of Americans & institutions Special virtues of Americans & institutions America’s mission to redeem & remake the world in our image America’s mission to redeem & remake the world in our image Divine destiny under God’s direction to accomplish this wonderful task Divine destiny under God’s direction to accomplish this wonderful task

11 The Oregon Country & Discovery U.S. & English settlement U.S. & English settlement U.S. Spain, 1821, U.S. Russia, 1824 U.S. Spain, 1821, U.S. Russia, 1824 US England treaties 1818, 1827, Polk 1846 US England treaties 1818, 1827, Polk 1846 Indian treaties Indian treaties Oregon Territory Act 1848 (NW Ord 1787) Oregon Territory Act 1848 (NW Ord 1787) Donation Land Act & HR Rep. 271 (1850) Donation Land Act & HR Rep. 271 (1850)


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