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1 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I ECE 495 - INTEGRATED SYSTEMS I Designing for Cradle to Grave: Environmental Concerns Timothy Burg.

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Presentation on theme: "1 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I ECE 495 - INTEGRATED SYSTEMS I Designing for Cradle to Grave: Environmental Concerns Timothy Burg."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I ECE INTEGRATED SYSTEMS I Designing for Cradle to Grave: Environmental Concerns Timothy Burg

2 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I The Gathering Storm - You are Competing in a World Economy 3 day delivery of new laptop!

3 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Career Note – You are Competing in a World Economy “Rising Above The Gathering Storm, Revisited - Rapidly Approaching Category 5” – Prepared for National Academy Engineering The Academies advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. – The 2005 report focuses on the ability of Americans to compete for jobs in the evolving global economy. The possession of quality jobs is the foundation of a high quality life for the nation’s citizenry. The report paints a daunting outlook for America.

4 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I The Gathering Storm - Manufacturing Factoids Among manufacturers of photovoltaics, wind turbines and advanced batteries, the top ten global firms by market capitalization include two US firms. The other firms are from China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Spain, Taiwan and the U.K. Bethlehem Steel marked its 100th birthday by declaring bankruptcy Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. (electronics manufacturing, Foxconn, Taiwan) employs more people than the worldwide employment of Apple, Dell, Microsoft, Intel and Sony combined.

5 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I The Gathering Storm – Education Factoids When MIT put its course materials on the worldwide web, over half of the users were outside the United States In 2000 the number of foreign students studying the physical sciences and engineering in United States graduate schools for the first time surpassed the number of United States students. The United States ranks 20th in high school completion rate among industrialized nations and 16th in college completion rate. China’s Tsinghua and Peking Universities are the two largest suppliers of students who receive PhD’s—in the United States Of 40 accepted applicants in ECE for Fall 2011, ~ 2 are US citizens

6 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I The Gathering Storm - Technology Factoids In 2009, 51 percent of United States patents were awarded to non-United States companies. GE has now located the majority of its R&D personnel outside the United States. China has now replaced the United States as the world’s number one high-technology exporter.

7 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I The Gathering Storm - You are Competing in a World Economy Bottom line – you must compete in a world economy. Good technical skills Good communication skills Good language skills Able to relocate and adapt Good business skills

8 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example – Without control: rivers, streams, oceans, and underground water are polluted Cuyahoga River Fire ‘69 Water Pollution

9 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example – Without control: industry and automobile emissions pollute the air A view of the South Pole from NASA’s “Total Ozone mapping Spectrometer” satellite. Air Pollution

10 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example – Without control: radioactive materials can be dispersed into air, soil, and waterways A city near the Chernobyl plant that was abandoned due to radioactive fallout. Three Mile Island Disaster in Harrisburg, PA Radiation

11 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example – Without control: waste can accumulate Waste Storage

12 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example – US Government has defined minimum expectations for environmental stewardship National Environmental Policy Act of 1970 (NEPA) First law written that – established national framework for protecting the environment and – created an enforcer of the law -The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has primary responsibility Is our basic national charter for protection of the environment All Environmental Laws & Regulations NEPA

13 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example – With control: rivers, streams, oceans and underground water can be preserved Cuyahoga River Fire ‘69 Cuyahoga River today Today

14 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example – Evaluating Environmental Impacts Electric cars are promoted as the environmentally benign future of transportation. Ads assure us of "zero emissions," and President Obama has promised a million on the road by A 2012 comprehensive life-cycle analysis in Journal of Industrial Ecology Electric Car – manufacturing produces 30,000 pounds of carbon-dioxide emissions (50% of lifetime) Conventional Car – manufacturing produces 14,000 pounds of carbon-dioxide emissions (17% of lifetime). Is it benign? Is it better than conventional car? If a typical electric car is driven 50,000 miles over its lifetime, the huge initial emissions from its manufacture means the car will actually have put more carbon-dioxide in the atmosphere than a similar-size gasoline- powered car driven the same number of miles. What is the start and end of the lifetime in this analysis?

15 15 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Generic Product Development Identify Need Research Specifications Concepts Design Prototype Testing Retire Maintain Use by Customers Distribute and Sell Manufacture Environmental Impact is part of the Design: Look ahead to the product lifecycle and find possible impacts. Optimize design to make system as environmentally friendly as possible Comply with regulations.

16 16 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Stages 1 – Raw Materials Acquisition 2 - Manufacture 3 - Use 4 - Final Disposal Total environmental impact of a product is the sum of the impacts at each stage

17 17 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Stage 1: Raw Materials Acquisition Raw Materials in Electronics and Semiconductor Industry: Metals Plastics Acquiring the Lithium needed to manufacture the LiIon batteries (Bolivia) Copper Mine (US)

18 18 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Stage 2: Manufacturing of the product The processing of the raw materials creates pollutants both in the workplace environment and in the exterior environments, e.g. Cadmium Lead Mercury Circuit Board Cleaners

19 19 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle 3: Use - Distribution (Shipping)

20 20 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I What is in US landfills? What type of trash takes up the most space in US landfills? a. plastic b. metal c. paper d. yard waste

21 21 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle 3: Use - Distribution (Packaging) Dell recently announced their plan: – Cut $8 million in costs. – Eliminate 20 million pounds of packaging material

22 22 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle 3: Use - Consumption Vampire energy – energy used by electronic devices even though they are “off” Wasted vampire energy accounts for over 4% of all the energy consumption in US consumption means 100 million tons of oil each year. translates to 1% of all the energy used in the entire world.

23 23 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Stage 4: Disposal/Recycle/Waste Management Scale of problem We throw out about 130,000 computers each day Americans buy more than 100 million cell phones each year What percent of municipal solid waste (MSW) is electronics? Disposal Of Electric Devices Has Environmental Impact 1-4%

24 24 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Stage 4: Disposal/Recycle/Waste Management Batteries: May contain Cd, Pb, Hg, Ni, Li Americans buy 3 billion dry-cells every year (each year each person discards 8 batteries) 99 million wet-cell batteries are manufactured each year – More that 95% of car batteries are recycled – 21 lbs Pb, 3 lbs plastic, and H 2 SO 4 per battery

25 25 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Stage 4: Disposal/Recycle/Waste Recovering Materials from Semiconductors ‘e-waste’ has valuable copper, gold, silver, platinum and palladium as well as lead but the metals are difficult to separate

26 26 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Environmental Goal Foster environmentally conscious design and manufacturing Increase purchasing and use of more environmentally sustainable electronics Increase safe, environmentally sound reuse and recycling of used electronics

27 27 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Environmental Friendly Design Utilize Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) Concepts to estimate environmental impact. Apply the Four Rs to mitigate environmental impact. Remove (substitute something with less impact) Recycle Reuse (Re-purpose) Reduce (Increase product life)

28 28 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Analysis (Assessment) LCA Quantifying (measuring) the Environmental Impact of a Product Life Cycle Analysis (Assessment) LCA – Is a “cradle-to-grave” method (tool) that attempts to measure the total environmental impact for the entire life (life cycle) of a specific product LCA takes into account the inputs (energy and raw materials), the emissions, and other important factors for the total product process - for all 4 stages of the life cycle.

29 29 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) Overview Phase 2 Inventory Analysis Phase 3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment LCIA Phase 4 Interpretation Define the goal and purpose of a Life Cycle Assessment Develop a list of the inputs and outputs of the system 1.Assign each inventory item to an Environmental Impact Category; 2.Calculate the 12 Environmental Indices for each Environmental category; 3.Normalize the 12 Environmental Indices; 4.Sum the 12 normalized values for the Performance Score. Interpret the results of the Life Cycle assessment. Consider the performance of the product by each environmental impact and the Performance Score Phase 1 Goals, Definition & Scope

30 30 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Analysis (Assessment) LCA Phase 1 Goals, Definition & Scope Phase 2 Inventory Analysis Phase 3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment LCIA Phase 4 Interpretation Phase 1 Procedures 1.Define the Goals of the project i.e. is the life cycle assessment to be used for a single product environment assessment or for a comparison the environment of two or more products. 2.Determine the boundaries and the type of information needed 3.Define the scope of the project

31 31 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Analysis LCA Phase 1 Goals, Definition & Scope Phase 2 Inventory Analysis Phase 3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment LCIA Phase 4 Interpretation 1.Develop a flow diagram of the processes 2.Develop a list identifying and quantifying the inputs and outputs for each process in the entire system Figure - Material Flow Diagram for the production of a tallow-based bar soap

32 32 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Analysis LCA Phase 1 Goals, Definition & Scope Phase 2 Inventory Analysis Phase 3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment LCIA Phase 4 Interpretation Step 1. Assign each Inventory Item to an Environmental impact category Fossil Fuel Depletion Indoor Air Quality Habitat Alteration Global Warming Acidification Eutrophication Water Intake Criteria Air Pollutants Human Health Smog Ozone Depletion Ecological Toxicity Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide Ammonia Hydrocarbons Halon, etc Step 2 Calculate an Impact index for each environmental impact category Calculate ‘impact potential index’ for each impact category (example- Global Warming) by the following equation: – GWP = ∑mi x GWPi where m = mass in grams and GWPi is the factor obtained from a table similar to the BEES table below.

33 33 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Analysis LCA Phase 3 (cont.) Phase 1 Goals, Definition & Scope Phase 2 Inventory Analysis Phase 3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment LCIA Phase 4 Interpretation Step 3 Normalize the 12 Environmental Impact indexes so they can be compared by a scale impact value. For example, the Global Warming normalization value is 25,582, g CO 2 equivalents/year/capita. Step 4. Step 4. Calculate the Environmental Performance Score (EP Score) by summing the 12 normalized impact indexes.

34 34 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Phase 1 Goals, Definition & Scope Phase 2 Inventory Analysis Phase 3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment LCIA Phase 4 Interpretation LCA continuation of Phase 3 Steps 3-4 The data can be displayed in various ways. The LCA for 5 types of floor covering is shown to the right. The 12 environmental impacts are colored-coded to provide additional detailed information.

35 35 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example of a life cycle analysis: compact florescent lights (CFL) versus incandescent light bulbs Life Cycle Assessment for CFLs

36 36 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Assessment for CFLs Mercury in the bulb is obviously not desirable. However, when the entire life cycle is considered, this may not be as detrimental to the environment as first thought.

37 37 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Life Cycle Assessment for CFLs Manufacture Phase – Handling and storage of mercury Distribution – Packaging contamination Consumer Phase – Use significantly less energy than traditional light bulbs (75% less) – Clean-up of broken bulb – Ultraviolet radiation Disposal (waste) Phase – Mercury waste – Electronic waste Addresses an important environmental concern Creates new potential environmental concerns Considering the entire product life cycle, CFL is a better choice than incandescent

38 38 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Professional Note: Code of Electrical Engineers IEEE Code of Electrical Engineers We, the members of the IEEE, recognition of the importance of our technologies in affecting the quality of life throughout the world… agree: to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment

39 39 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Conclusions – Your design decisions affect us all End

40 40 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I References EPA - Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Practices. Must be Purchased – ISO and Free copy of NIST BEES Computer Program - < NIST Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES)


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