2NeoprenePic=http://www.123rf.com/photo_ _neoprene-polychloroprene-synthetic-rubber-chemical-structure-multiple-representations.html123RF USAc/o Inmagine LLC(EIN: )315 Montgomery StreetSuite 818San Francisco, CA 94104USASimple 4 carbon polymer with a single chlorine attached to the double bond.
3Neoprene Also known as polychloroprene. Pic=http://www.123rf.com/photo_ _neoprene-polychloroprene-synthetic-rubber-chemical-structure--linear-fragment-detail--atoms-are-repr.html123RF USAc/o Inmagine LLC(EIN: )315 Montgomery StreetSuite 818San Francisco, CA 94104USAAlso known as polychloroprene.
4Neoprene Truths Annual consumption of nearly 300 000 tons worldwide Widely used due to itsfavorable combination oftechnical properties.Mainly used in the rubber industry (61%)also important as a raw material for adhesives (both solvent based and water based (33%)has different latex applications such as dipped articles (e.g. gloves) and molded foam. (6%)
5Interrogate #1What property does chlorine give to the overall polymer?Lower flammability!!!
6Neoprene Truths cont. The typical delivery form is “chips” The polymer is not characterized by one outstanding property, but its balance of properties is unique among the synthetic elastomers. It has:Good mechanical strengthHigh ozone and weather resistanceGood aging resistanceLow flammabilityGood resistance toward chemicalsModerate oil and fuel resistance
7Capacity (Metric Tons) Neoprene Truths cont.According to the IISRP, in 2000 the following production facilities and producers are shipping polychloroprene into the market place:Additional capacities are located in Peoples Republic of China and Armenia.Company nameCountryCapacity (Metric Tons)DuPont Dow ElastomersUSABayer AGGermany65 000EniChemFrance40 000Denki Kagaku KogyoJapan48 000TOSOH30 000Showa DDE20 000
8Early HistoryDuring the 1920s the increasing demand for natural rubber led to higher and higher prices,-There for sparking a search for an equivalent synthetic rubber.In 1932, Wallace Carothers produced a rubber-like substance during a polymerization experiment using chloroprene.-A chemist in DuPont's fundamental research group.Pic=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallace_CarothersInfo=http://www.seventhwave.co.nz/wetsuits101/neoprene+info/limestone+neoprene.html
9History 1930sThe polymer was originally called Duprene and in 1937 DuPont discontinued the trade nameThey changed it to "neoprene"The name change was also used to signify that the material was an ingredient, not a finished consumer product.It was also used in consumer goods like:glovesshoe solesAlthough production was stepped upit was all claimed by the military.World War II removed neoprene from the commercial market.Essentially unchanged since 1950, neoprene continues to be essential in the manufacture ofadhesives,sealants,power transmission belts,hoses and tubes.Info=http://www.seventhwave.co.nz/wetsuits101/neoprene+info/limestone+neoprene.html
10History 1950sIt wasn't until the 1950s that neoprene was first used in a wetsuit.Hugh Bradner,a University of California, Berkeley physicist is often considered the original inventor and "father of the modern wetsuit.”Corporate legend Jack O'Neill from San Francisco was known for pioneering the application of neoprene wetsuits around 1955.Pic=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_BradnerInfo=http://www.seventhwave.co.nz/wetsuits101/neoprene+info/limestone+neoprene.html
11History 1960s-PresentDuring the 1960s a new type of neoprene was pioneered.Up until this time, the process of manufacturing neoprene involved petroleum and petro-chemicals.Petro based polymers use a polymerization process that heats oil to extremely high temperatures.Yamamoto Corporation developed special technology to convert the calcium carbonate from limestone into chloroprene rubber chips and then further processing to achieve neoprene foam with a very high micro-cell structure.This new process results in neoprene with very different characteristics to oil based neoprene.Yamamoto has been marketing their Yamamoto limestone neoprene since this inception.Info=http://www.seventhwave.co.nz/wetsuits101/neoprene+info/limestone+neoprene.html
12Types of neoprene Normal linear grades (general-purpose grades): General-purpose grades are mostly produced with n-dodecyl mercaptan as the chain transfer agent and occasionally with xanthogen disulfides.Depending on the ingredients used the polymer can be more readily proccessible and give improved mechanical properties.Precrosslinked grades:Precrosslinked grades consist of a blend of soluble polychloroprene and crosslinked polychloroprene.They show less swelling after extrusion (die swell) and better calenderability.Precrosslinked grades are particularly suitable for the extrusion of profiled parts.
13Interrogate #2 What is Vulcanization? It is chemical process for converting rubber or related polymers into more durable materials via the addition of sulfur.
14Types of neoprene Sulfur-modified grades: Slow crystallizing grades: Sulfur-modified grades are copolymers of chloroprene and elemental sulfur.Sulfur-modified grades are used in particular for parts exposed to dynamic stress, such as driving belts, timing belts or conveyor belts because of their excellent mechanical properties.But the polymers are less stable during storage and the vulcanizates less resistant to aging.Slow crystallizing grades:Slow crystallizing grades are polymerized with 2,3-dichloro-1,3-butadiene as a comonomer.This comonomer reduces the degree of crystallization by introducing irregularities into the polymer chain.Crystallization resistant grades are used to produce rubber articles, which have to retain their rubbery properties at very low temperatures.
15Overall will focus on the one type of neoprene production: Limestone based neoprene.
16Limestone Neoprene Limestone neoprene has a high micro-cell structure. These are independent closed cells (bubbles basically) within the neoprene that are packed together at an extremely high density.limestone neoprene has a 94% cell penetration.less dense than oil-based neoprene.Because of this micro-cell structure, limestone neoprene provides several serious distinct advantages to the functionality of wetsuits compared to the traditional oil-based neoprene:It is more impermeableIt is lighter in weightIt is warmerIt is more durableIt is stretchy
17Oil-Based Neoprene (comparison) Low micro-cell structure.Oil-based neoprene has a cell penetration of 60-70%The amount of bubbles or pockets with in the polymer, oil based neoprene has low density closed cells.Also denser than limestone neoprene.Problems associated with inferior-quality neoprene:Delamination: blisters between the nylon and rubber which deteriorates quicklyCompression: neoprene 'cave-ins', especially around the knee/elbow areasNo memory: does not return memory (hold its shape) and the fit gives out over timeSplits: neoprene splits unnecessarily within the nylon layers
18The Makings!!!Yamamoto uses acetylene derived from the calcium carbonate found in limestone.Extracted limestone is fed into a furnace and heated at a temperature around one-tenth of that used for refining petroleumCalcium carbide is produced by heating coke with calcium oxide (limestone) in an electrical furnace up to 2000 °C.
19The Makings cont.!!! CaC2(s) + 2 H2O(l) C2H2 (g) + Ca(OH)2 (aq) Calcium carbide reacts with water, releasing acetylene, C2H2.Dimerization of acetylene by passing it through an aqueous solution of Ammonium Chloride and Cuprous Chloride at 343K.Vinylacetylene performs a Markonikov addition under acidic condition to produce ChloropreneCaC2(s) + 2 H2O(l) C2H2 (g) + Ca(OH)2 (aq)
20The Makings cont.!!!The Chloroprene obtained undergoes Polymerization to give Neoprene. Though no specific catalysts are needed for this process but the polymerization becomes faster in the presence of Oxygen or peroxide.The polychloroprene rubber chips are melted and mixed together with foaming agents and black carbon pigments, and then baked in an oven to make it expand.It's during this process that Yamamoto's specialized technology combines with the calcium carbonate to create the micro-cell structure of limestone neoprene versus the regular oil-based neoprene.