Presentation on theme: "Developing Coal Tar/ Petroleum Pitches"— Presentation transcript:
1Developing Coal Tar/ Petroleum Pitches Melvin D. Kiser -Marathon Ashland Petroleum CompanyRobert H. Wombles -Koppers Industries, Inc.
2Discussion TopicsIntroductionCoal Tar and Petroleum SuppliesCoal Tar and Petroleum Pitch ManufacturingCoal Tar/Petroleum Pitch Product Development
3IntroductionFirst Coal Chemical Recovery Ovens Installed in the US in 1893By 1915, By-product Ovens Accounted for 97% of Metallurgical Coke Produced in USSince Then Coal Tar Pitch Has Been Binder of Choice for Aluminum, Commercial Carbon, and Graphite Industries
4Introduction, cont.Late 1980’s and 1990’s Closing of US Coke Ovens Accelerated Due to Economic and Environmental PressuresCoke Oven Closures Resulted in Concern for Supply of Coal Tar Pitch and Strategies to Deal with Anticipated Shortage Being Sought
5Introduction, cont.Oil Industry As It Is known Today Began with the Discovery of Crude Oil in Ontario and Western Pennsylvania in 1850’sRefineries Have Concentrated on Producing Transportation and Heating Fuel with Little Interest in Heavy Products Such as Pitch
6Introduction, cont.During 1960’s Some Refineries Began to Show Interest in Producing Petroleum Pitch and Some Were Successful in Producing High Aromaticity and Specific Gravity PitchesEvaluation of These Pitches As Binder Pitches Has Given Mixed Results with Most Often Reported Shortcoming Being Higher Than Desired Carbon Consumption
7Introduction, cont.Future Use of Petroleum Pitches Will Probably Not Be Driven By Economics But Raw Material Availability and Regulations
8Introduction, cont. Strategies to Deal with Shrinking Coal Tar Supply Importing Coal TarImporting Coal Tar PitchDeveloping Processes to Improve Pitch Yield and Upgrade Non-conventional Coal TarsUsing Petroleum Pitches to Supplement Coal Tar Pitch Supply
12Petroleum SuppliesYearly Supply of Coal Tar Is 6 MM Barrels (Less Than the Volume of Crude Oil Processed Each Day)Yearly Supply of Potential Pitch Feedstocks Is 326 MM BarrelsAssuming Only 10% Available and Acceptable Results in Petroleum Pitch Yearly Feedstock Supply of 32.6 MM Barrels
17Petroleum Pitch Manufacturing Many Petroleum Products Referred to as Pitch (Causes Confusion Among Non-Refiners)Different Pitches Share Only Commonality of Being Black Solids at Room TemperatureCharacteristics of Petroleum Pitches Determined by Feedstock and Processing to ProduceReaction Step Used to Generate or Concentrate the High Molecular Weight Molecules
18Common Petroleum Pitch Producing Processes Solvent DeasphaltingPrecipitation of High Molecular Weight and Aromaticity MoleculesSpecific Gravity of 1.0 g/ccContains Non-aromatic Molecules and High Metals LevelsOxidationLittle Incorporation of Oxygen in ProductOxygen Generates Free Radicals Which Cause PolymerizationProducts Typically Have Low Coking Values and High ViscositiesThermal ProcessingThermal Processing Temperatures of 300°C to 480°CProduces High Specific Gravity and Aromaticity Product
19Crude Oil to Petroleum Pitch Desalting & DewateringAtmospheric DistillationOther ComponentsPitch Feed PreparationFluid Catalytic CrackingVacuum DistillationPrimary Reaction ProcessesSecondary Reaction ProcessesLiquid StorageSolidification1. Feed preparation can consist of any one or a combination of blending, distillation, desulfurization and solids removal.2. Primary reaction processes may consist of any one or a combination of solvent deasphalting, thermal processing, oxidation or catalytic reactions.3. Secondary reaction processes may include distillation, desulfurization, oxidation or thermal soaking.
21Coal Tar/Petroleum Pitch Aluminum Industry Experience with 100% Petroleum Pitch Not AcceptableSuitable Petroleum Materials Must Be Identified (100 Materials Evaluated)Commercial Testing Began in 1994Small Performance Disadvantages IdentifiedEfforts to Improve Performance SuccessfulMost Economical Solution with Potential Plentiful Supply
23ConclusionsSupply of Coal Tar in North America Is Declining Because of Environmental and Financial PressuresOne Strategy for Dealing with Declining Coal Tar Supply Is Coal Tar/Petroleum PitchBecause the Refining Industry Uses Pitch to Describe a Number of Products with Varying Properties, Care Must Be Taken in Selecting the Petroleum Component of a Coal Tar/Petroleum Pitch
24Conclusions, cont.Coal Tar/Petroleum Pitch Is the Preferred Long Range Solution to the Tar Shortage Because: 1) It Is Economical, 2) Its Performance Has Been Proven, 3) Potential Feedstock Supply Is Plentiful and 4) Product Quality Is ConsistentCoal Tar/Petroleum Pitches with Significantly Reduced PNA Contents Have Been DevelopedCoal Tar/Petroleum Pitch Product Development Efforts Will Continue