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Plant Growth and Development Essential Standard 4.00: Examine factors relating to plant growth and development.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Growth and Development Essential Standard 4.00: Examine factors relating to plant growth and development."— Presentation transcript:


2 Plant Growth and Development Essential Standard 4.00: Examine factors relating to plant growth and development.

3 Objective 4.01 Explain the growth process of plants

4 Processes of plant growth Photosynthesis Respiration Absorption Transpiration Translocation Reproduction

5 Photosynthesis The food and manufacturing process in green plants that combines carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light to make sugar and oxygen. –Formula: 6CO 2 +6H 2 O+672Kcal C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 Carbon Dioxide Water Light Energy Glucose Sugar Oxygen

6 Respiration The process through which plant leaves, stems and roots consume oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. Plants produce much more oxygen through photosynthesis than they use through respiration.

7 Absorption The process by which plant roots take in water and air

8 Transpiration The process by which plants lose water from leaves and stems through evaporation

9 Translocation The process by which food and nutrients are moved within a plant from one plant part to another

10 Reproduction The plant process that increases plant numbers –usually by seeds

11 Stages of Plant Growth Juvenile-when a plant first starts to grow from a seed Reproductive-when a plant produces flowers, seeds and fruits Dormant-when a plant rests or grows very little, if any

12 Plant Cells Basic unit of growth A nucleus and a mass of protoplasm contained within a plasma membrane

13 Parts of a Plant Cell Nucleus –location of plant’s genetic and hereditary make-up

14 Protoplasm –the living matter of the cell Plasma Membrane –surrounds protoplasm and allows for exchange of nutrients and gases into and out of cell Parts of a Plant Cell

15 Cell Wall –rigid and provides support for the cell and thus the whole plant Parts of a Plant Cell

16 Other Structures –Chloroplasts –Vacuole –Plastids –Mitochondrion Parts of a Plant Cell

17 Plant Cells

18 Plant tissue A group of cells with similar origin and function Classified according to their origin, structure and physiology Structure of permanent tissue –simple-usually one type of cell –complex-several types of cells

19 Tissue origin and function Meristematic-near tip of stems and roots where cell division and enlargement occur Vascular cambium-increase growth in diameter of stems

20 Simple Tissues Epidermal-one-cell thick, outer layer, protects and prevents water loss Sclerenchyma-have thickened cell walls and contain fibers to give strength and support to plant structures

21 Other tissues Collenchyma-have thick cell walls that strengthen and support plant structures Parenchyma-fleshy part of plant that stores water and nutrients

22 Phases of the asexual cycle Vegetative-growth and development of buds, roots, leaves and stems –cell elongation-stage when cells enlarge –differentiation-stage when cells specialize Reproductive or flowering-plant develops flower buds that will develop into flowers, fruits and seeds

23 Effects of Light, Moisture, Temperature and Nutrients on Plants

24 Light Photoperiodism-response of plants to different amounts of light regarding their flowering and reproduction cycles Necessary because of photosynthesis Not enough light causes long, slender, spindly stems Too much light will cause plants to dry out faster

25 Moisture Needed in large amounts because plant tissues are mostly water and water carries nutrients Not enough water causes wilting and stunted growth Too much water causes small root systems and drowning which is a result of air spaces in soil being filled with water

26 Temperature Needs vary depending on type of plants Either too high or too low will have adverse effects VS

27 Nutrients Essential for optimal plant conditions Has little effect on seed germination

28 Combining growth factors Ideal quantities and quality will give optimum plant growth Each has an effect on the other factors Unfavorable environmental conditions for plant growth causes diseases to be more severe in their damages to plants

29 Hardiness Zones

30 North Carolina –Zones 6 to 8 Considers minimum temperature extremes –Zone to 0 degrees F –Zone 7 0 to 10 degrees F Charlotte –Zone 8 10 to 20 degrees F


32 Plant Propagation Essential Standard 4.00: Examine factors relating to plant growth and development.

33 Objective 4.02 Use sexual and asexual methods of propagation.

34 Propagation The multiplication of a kind or species. Reproduction of a species.

35 Sexual Propagation Propagation from seeds. Pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma. Fertilization occurs and seeds are produced.

36 Germination Rates Percent of seeds that sprout –75 out of 100=75% Rate is affected by seed viability, temperature and moisture. Rates vary depending on plant and quality of seed.

37 Seeds Plant depth depends on the size of seeds –larger seeds are planted deeper –water small seeds from bottom by soaking Embryo Endosperm Seed Coat

38 Seedlings (small plants) Transplant when first true leaves appear Reduce humidity and water and make environment more like outside to “harden off” plants

39 Seeds to Seedlings

40 Advantages of Sexual Reproduction Fast way to get many plants Easy to do Economical

41 Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction Some plants, especially hybrids, do not reproduce true to parents Some plants are difficult to propagate from seeds

42 Asexual Reproduction Uses growing plant parts other than seeds Types of asexual reproduction: –cuttings –layering –division or separation –budding –grafting –tissue culture

43 Rooting from Cuttings Rooting media should be about 4 inches deep Best time of day is early mornings because plants have more moisture Types of cuttings: –stem –leaf –root

44 Stem Cuttings Using a small piece of stem to reproduce plants using hormones and dipping in fungicides help speed up rooting

45 Leaf cuttings Using small pieces of leaves to reproduce new plants from herbaceous plants vein must be cut

46 Stem Cuttings-Step 1 Gather all materials needed

47 Stem Cuttings-Step 2 Cut 3 to 4 inch shoot from stem tip

48 Stem Cuttings-Step 3 Remove lower leaves from the shoot

49 Stem Cuttings-Step 4 Dip cut surface in rooting hormone

50 Stem Cuttings-Step 5 Thoroughly moisten rooting medium

51 Stem Cuttings-Step 6 Stick one or more cuttings in rooting media

52 Stem Cuttings-Step 7 Cover with plastic wrap or place on a mist bench in a warm area away from direct sunlight.

53 Stem Cuttings-Step 8 Once rooted, cuttings can be separated carefully and transplanted

54 Root Cuttings Using small pieces of roots to reproduce plants should be three inches apart in rooting area

55 Layering Scarring a small area of stem to produce new plants –air layering –trench layering –mound layering

56 Trench Layering

57 Division or Separation Cutting or pulling apart plant structures for reproduction –bulbs –corms –rhizomes –tubers –runners –stolons –suckers

58 Bulbs

59 Grafting Joining separate plant parts together so that they form a union and grow together to make one plant. Wedge Graft Approach Graft

60 Grafting Terms Scion-the piece of plant at the top of the graft Rootstock-the piece of the plant at the root or bottom of the graft

61 Methods of Grafting If the scion and rootstock are the same size –wedge –splice –whip and tongue –approach

62 If the scion is smaller than the rootstock –cleft –side –notch –bark inlay Methods of Grafting

63 Budding A form of grafting when a bud is used –patch budding –T-budding –Chip Budding Chip Budding

64 How to perform T-budding Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4

65 Tissue Culture Using a small amount of plant tissue to grow in a sterile environment The most plants in a short time True to parent plant

66 Advantages of Asexual Production Plants mature in a shorter time Budding is faster than grafting In trench layering, a plant forms at each node on a covered stem Some plants do not produce viable seed New plants are the same as the parent plant

67 Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction Some require special equipment and skills, such as grafting Cuttings detach plant parts from water and nutrient source Some plants are patented making propagation illegal

68 The Uses of Biotechnology in Horticulture

69 What is Biotechnology? The use of cells or components (parts) of cells to produce products or processes

70 Methods Tissue culture or micropropagation Cloning Genetic Engineering

71 Tissue Culture Uses terminal shoots or leaf buds in a sterile or aseptic environment on agar gel or other nutrient-growing media to produce thousands of identical plants

72 Cloning Genetically generating offspring from non- sexual tissue

73 Genetic Engineering Movement of genetic information in the form of genes from one cell to another cell to modify or change the genetic make-up

74 Benefits of Biotechnology Produce many identical plants in a short time Increase disease and insect resistance Increase tolerance to heat and cold Increase weed tolerance

75 Increase tolerance to drought Improve environment Increase production Other genetic changes Benefits of Biotechnology

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