Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Plant Growth and Development

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Plant Growth and Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Growth and Development
Essential Standard 4.00: Examine factors relating to plant growth and development.

2 Objective 4.01 Explain the growth process of plants

3 Processes of plant growth
Photosynthesis Respiration Absorption Transpiration Translocation Reproduction

4 Photosynthesis The food and manufacturing process in green plants that combines carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light to make sugar and oxygen. Formula: 6CO2+6H2O+672Kcal C6H12O6+6O2 Carbon Dioxide Light Energy Glucose Sugar Water Oxygen

5 Respiration The process through which plant leaves, stems and roots consume oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. Plants produce much more oxygen through photosynthesis than they use through respiration.

6 Absorption The process by which plant roots take in water and air

7 Transpiration The process by which plants lose water from leaves and stems through evaporation

8 Translocation The process by which food and nutrients are moved within a plant from one plant part to another

9 Reproduction The plant process that increases plant numbers
usually by seeds

10 Stages of Plant Growth Juvenile-when a plant first starts to grow from a seed Reproductive-when a plant produces flowers, seeds and fruits Dormant-when a plant rests or grows very little, if any

11 Plant Cells Basic unit of growth
A nucleus and a mass of protoplasm contained within a plasma membrane

12 Parts of a Plant Cell Nucleus
location of plant’s genetic and hereditary make-up

13 Parts of a Plant Cell Protoplasm Plasma Membrane
the living matter of the cell Plasma Membrane surrounds protoplasm and allows for exchange of nutrients and gases into and out of cell

14 Parts of a Plant Cell Cell Wall
rigid and provides support for the cell and thus the whole plant

15 Parts of a Plant Cell Other Structures Chloroplasts Vacuole Plastids

16 Plant Cells

17 Plant tissue A group of cells with similar origin and function
Classified according to their origin, structure and physiology Structure of permanent tissue simple-usually one type of cell complex-several types of cells

18 Tissue origin and function
Meristematic-near tip of stems and roots where cell division and enlargement occur Vascular cambium-increase growth in diameter of stems

19 Simple Tissues Epidermal-one-cell thick, outer layer, protects and prevents water loss Sclerenchyma-have thickened cell walls and contain fibers to give strength and support to plant structures

20 Other tissues Collenchyma-have thick cell walls that strengthen and support plant structures Parenchyma-fleshy part of plant that stores water and nutrients

21 Phases of the asexual cycle
Vegetative-growth and development of buds, roots, leaves and stems cell elongation-stage when cells enlarge differentiation-stage when cells specialize Reproductive or flowering-plant develops flower buds that will develop into flowers, fruits and seeds

22 Effects of Light, Moisture, Temperature and Nutrients on Plants

23 Light Photoperiodism-response of plants to different amounts of light regarding their flowering and reproduction cycles Necessary because of photosynthesis Not enough light causes long, slender, spindly stems Too much light will cause plants to dry out faster

24 Moisture Needed in large amounts because plant tissues are mostly water and water carries nutrients Not enough water causes wilting and stunted growth Too much water causes small root systems and drowning which is a result of air spaces in soil being filled with water

25 VS Temperature Needs vary depending on type of plants
Either too high or too low will have adverse effects VS

26 Nutrients Essential for optimal plant conditions
Has little effect on seed germination

27 Combining growth factors
Ideal quantities and quality will give optimum plant growth Each has an effect on the other factors Unfavorable environmental conditions for plant growth causes diseases to be more severe in their damages to plants

28 Hardiness Zones

29 Hardiness Zones North Carolina Considers minimum temperature extremes
Zones 6 to 8 Considers minimum temperature extremes Zone 6 -10 to 0 degrees F Zone 7 0 to 10 degrees F Charlotte Zone 8 10 to 20 degrees F


31 Plant Propagation Essential Standard 4.00: Examine factors relating to plant growth and development.

32 Objective 4.02 Use sexual and asexual methods of propagation.

33 Propagation The multiplication of a kind or species.
Reproduction of a species.

34 Sexual Propagation Propagation from seeds.
Pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma. Fertilization occurs and seeds are produced.

35 Germination Rates Percent of seeds that sprout
75 out of 100=75% Rate is affected by seed viability, temperature and moisture. Rates vary depending on plant and quality of seed.

36 Seeds Plant depth depends on the size of seeds
larger seeds are planted deeper water small seeds from bottom by soaking Embryo Seed Coat Endosperm

37 Seedlings (small plants)
Transplant when first true leaves appear Reduce humidity and water and make environment more like outside to “harden off” plants

38 Seeds to Seedlings

39 Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
Fast way to get many plants Easy to do Economical

40 Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction
Some plants, especially hybrids, do not reproduce true to parents Some plants are difficult to propagate from seeds

41 Asexual Reproduction Uses growing plant parts other than seeds
Types of asexual reproduction: cuttings layering division or separation budding grafting tissue culture

42 Rooting from Cuttings Rooting media should be about 4 inches deep
Best time of day is early mornings because plants have more moisture Types of cuttings: stem leaf root

43 Stem Cuttings Using a small piece of stem to reproduce plants
using hormones and dipping in fungicides help speed up rooting

44 Leaf cuttings Using small pieces of leaves to reproduce new plants
from herbaceous plants vein must be cut

45 Gather all materials needed
Stem Cuttings-Step 1 Gather all materials needed

46 Cut 3 to 4 inch shoot from stem tip
Stem Cuttings-Step 2 Cut 3 to 4 inch shoot from stem tip

47 Remove lower leaves from the shoot
Stem Cuttings-Step 3 Remove lower leaves from the shoot

48 Dip cut surface in rooting hormone
Stem Cuttings-Step 4 Dip cut surface in rooting hormone

49 Thoroughly moisten rooting medium
Stem Cuttings-Step 5 Thoroughly moisten rooting medium

50 Stick one or more cuttings in rooting media
Stem Cuttings-Step 6 Stick one or more cuttings in rooting media

51 Stem Cuttings-Step 7 Cover with plastic wrap or place on a mist bench in a warm area away from direct sunlight.

52 Once rooted, cuttings can be separated carefully and transplanted
Stem Cuttings-Step 8 Once rooted, cuttings can be separated carefully and transplanted

53 Root Cuttings Using small pieces of roots to reproduce plants
should be three inches apart in rooting area

54 Layering Scarring a small area of stem to produce new plants
air layering trench layering mound layering

55 Trench Layering

56 Division or Separation
Cutting or pulling apart plant structures for reproduction bulbs corms rhizomes tubers runners stolons suckers

57 Bulbs

58 Grafting Joining separate plant parts together so that they form a union and grow together to make one plant. Wedge Graft Approach Graft

59 Grafting Terms Scion-the piece of plant at the top of the graft
Rootstock-the piece of the plant at the root or bottom of the graft

60 Methods of Grafting If the scion and rootstock are the same size wedge
splice whip and tongue approach

61 Methods of Grafting If the scion is smaller than the rootstock cleft
side notch bark inlay

62 Budding A form of grafting when a bud is used patch budding T-budding
Chip Budding Chip Budding

63 How to perform T-budding
Step 2 Step 4 Step 1 Step 3

64 Tissue Culture Using a small amount of plant tissue to grow in a sterile environment The most plants in a short time True to parent plant

65 Advantages of Asexual Production
Plants mature in a shorter time Budding is faster than grafting In trench layering, a plant forms at each node on a covered stem Some plants do not produce viable seed New plants are the same as the parent plant

66 Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction
Some require special equipment and skills, such as grafting Cuttings detach plant parts from water and nutrient source Some plants are patented making propagation illegal

67 The Uses of Biotechnology in Horticulture

68 What is Biotechnology? The use of cells or components (parts) of cells to produce products or processes

69 Methods Tissue culture or micropropagation Cloning Genetic Engineering

70 Tissue Culture Uses terminal shoots or leaf buds in a sterile or aseptic environment on agar gel or other nutrient-growing media to produce thousands of identical plants

71 Cloning Genetically generating offspring from non-sexual tissue

72 Genetic Engineering Movement of genetic information in the form of genes from one cell to another cell to modify or change the genetic make-up

73 Benefits of Biotechnology
Produce many identical plants in a short time Increase disease and insect resistance Increase tolerance to heat and cold Increase weed tolerance

74 Benefits of Biotechnology
Increase tolerance to drought Improve environment Increase production Other genetic changes

Download ppt "Plant Growth and Development"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google