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The Walking Stick Phasmida order Joy Winebrenner & Rebekah Carroll.

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Presentation on theme: "The Walking Stick Phasmida order Joy Winebrenner & Rebekah Carroll."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Walking Stick Phasmida order Joy Winebrenner & Rebekah Carroll

2 Basic Facts Herbivores (North American species prefer oak leaves) Herbivores (North American species prefer oak leaves) Nocturnal Nocturnal Spend much of the day hiding under leaves Spend much of the day hiding under leaves

3 Regions Predominantly found in tropics/subtropics Predominantly found in tropics/subtropics Found anywhere there is adequate foliage for hiding Found anywhere there is adequate foliage for hiding

4 Appearance Range from ½” (Timema cristinae of N. Am.) to 13” (Phobaeticus Kirby of Borneo) in length Range from ½” (Timema cristinae of N. Am.) to 13” (Phobaeticus Kirby of Borneo) in length Generally brown or green Generally brown or green Some have bright colors or are striped Some have bright colors or are striped Stick-like bodies or leaf-life shapes Stick-like bodies or leaf-life shapes Many have wings Many have wings Females are larger than males Females are larger than males Hard exoskeleton Hard exoskeleton

5 3 Body Parts: Head, Thorax, and abdomen

6 Families There are four major families: Family Timemidae -- timema walkingsticks Family Timemidae -- timema walkingsticks Family Heteronemiidae -- common walkingsticks

7 Family Pseudophasmatidae -- striped walkingsticks Family Phasmatidae -- winged walkingsticks

8 Defense Prey to spiders, other insects, birds, reptiles, bats and rodents Prey to spiders, other insects, birds, reptiles, bats and rodents Obvious camouflage (some can also change color to fit in with environment) Obvious camouflage (some can also change color to fit in with environment) Fake death or detach limbs to escape Fake death or detach limbs to escape Show bright colors/sounds when threatened Show bright colors/sounds when threatened Emit nasty smelling fluid (Anisomorpha buprestoides of North America) Emit nasty smelling fluid (Anisomorpha buprestoides of North America)

9 Reproduction Parthenogenic – females lay eggs without needing to mate with males to produce offspring Parthenogenic – females lay eggs without needing to mate with males to produce offspring Results in 100% female population unless male fertilizes the egg – 50/50 chance of offspring being male Results in 100% female population unless male fertilizes the egg – 50/50 chance of offspring being male Some species mate depending on abundance of males Some species mate depending on abundance of males

10 Life Cycle: Egg Female spreads eggs by flicking them to the ground Female spreads eggs by flicking them to the ground May bury or stick to tree bark May bury or stick to tree bark Some are carried to ants nests as food and protected until they hatch and exit the nest Some are carried to ants nests as food and protected until they hatch and exit the nest

11 Life Cycle: Nymph After days, nymph emerges from cap at the end of the egg After days, nymph emerges from cap at the end of the egg Nymph grows through molting exoskeleton Nymph grows through molting exoskeleton Will continue to molt for several months before reaching adulthood Will continue to molt for several months before reaching adulthood Can regenerate lost limbs only while molting Can regenerate lost limbs only while molting

12 Life Cycle: Adult Life span varies by species: few months – 2 years Life span varies by species: few months – 2 years Any regenerated legs will be slightly shorter Any regenerated legs will be slightly shorter After six moltings, adult is sexually mature After six moltings, adult is sexually mature

13 Pets Many people like to keep them as pets (depending on their species) Many people like to keep them as pets (depending on their species) There are over 3000 species of stick and leaf insects and the most commonly kept is the Indian (or Laboratory) stick insect (Carausius morosus). There are over 3000 species of stick and leaf insects and the most commonly kept is the Indian (or Laboratory) stick insect (Carausius morosus).

14 Stick insects can be handled and can be quite tame, but they are fragile and must be handled with the utmost of care. Stick insects can be handled and can be quite tame, but they are fragile and must be handled with the utmost of care. Required care is based on their species and original surroundings (humidity, temperature, and food sources). Required care is based on their species and original surroundings (humidity, temperature, and food sources). There are some local laws against having them as pets. There are some local laws against having them as pets.

15 Helpful or Harmful? Non-Native Pets who are released in the wild become ecological pests. Non-Native Pets who are released in the wild become ecological pests. Sticks can reproduce in the wild and damage the ecosystem where they are not normally found. Sticks can reproduce in the wild and damage the ecosystem where they are not normally found. They eat and destroy plants in the wild. They eat and destroy plants in the wild.

16 References tickinsects.htm tickinsects.htm tickinsects.htm tickinsects.htm stick-bug.html stick-bug.html stick-bug.html stick-bug.html cks.htm cks.htm cks.htm cks.htm ugs/stick-insect/ ugs/stick-insect/ ugs/stick-insect/ ugs/stick-insect/


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