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June 2002 V1.0 Page 1 GPRS « First steps toward Wireless data » EPFL Section Systèmes de Communication Frédéric Michaud Network Development Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "June 2002 V1.0 Page 1 GPRS « First steps toward Wireless data » EPFL Section Systèmes de Communication Frédéric Michaud Network Development Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

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2 June 2002 V1.0 Page 1 GPRS « First steps toward Wireless data » EPFL Section Systèmes de Communication Frédéric Michaud Network Development Engineering 27/01/2004

3 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 2 GPRS Part 1 Content ARCHITECTURE MOBILITY MANAGEMENT SESSION MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION From Theory…

4 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 3 Introduction GPRS – Packet Switch architecture – End to End IP service (mobile = IP host) – Re-use BSS architecture – New core architecture – Max theoretical rates ~170 kbps GPRS – Packet Switch architecture – End to End IP service (mobile = IP host) – Re-use BSS architecture – New core architecture – Max theoretical rates ~170 kbps GSM – Circuit Switch architecture – Indirect access to IP network – Too sensitive connection for data (today) – Expensive solution for data network (HSCSD) GSM – Circuit Switch architecture – Indirect access to IP network – Too sensitive connection for data (today) – Expensive solution for data network (HSCSD) General Packet Radio Service: a way to extend packet transfer up to the mobile station

5 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 4 Architecture Network Diagram MSC/VLR Abis Ater A HLR BTS BSC Um BSS NSS Transcoder GpGp Inter PLMN Backbone Gi ISP - External Network Gs Gb Gr GPRS Core Network GnGn GcGc GnGn SGSN Charging Gateway DNS GGSN GnGn GnGn GPRS IP Backbone Border Gateway

6 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 5 Architecture evolution of BSS network n New hardware in BSS: Packet Controlling Unit (PCU) can be compared to TRAU function in GSM generally located in the BSC heart of the packet transmission in BSS network allow the dynamic traffic allocation Provide the radio resource management mechanism, adapted to packet transfer RLC buffer PCU LLC Gb Abis BTS SGSN

7 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 6 Architecture New core equipments Other equipment:  Border Gateway, Charging Gateway, DNS, Firewalls PCU HLRVLR SGSN GGSN Charging Gateway Packet routing (IP – BSS) Mobility Management Session Management Charging Cyphering and compression GPRS Tunneling (PLMN – internet) Charging O&M (Operation & Maintenance) Lawful interception External IP world External IP world GGSN IP network

8 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 7 Mobile equipment Three types of Mobile Classes n CLASS A: « Rolls Royce » n CLASS B: « Standard » n CLASS C: « Cheap » CS Core Network (GSM) PS Core Network (GPRS) Simultaneous CS/PS Paging Simultaneous CS/PS data transfer CS Core Network (GSM) PS Core Network (GPRS) Simultaneous CS/PS Paging CS call or PS data transfer CS Core Network (GSM) PS Core Network (GPRS) CS mode (GSM only) or PS mode (GPRS only)

9 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 8 Mobility Management Mobile States n IDLE – not attached to GPRS – MS is not reachable IDLE READY STANDBY GPRS Attach GPRS Detach PDU Transmission READY timer expiry Force to STANBY STANBY timer expiry n READY – MS known down to Cell by SGSN – May receive/transmit packets – No Packet paging required – MS remains in READY state until “READY Timer” expires or GPRS Detach n STANDBY – MS known down to Routing Area by SGSN – MS attached to GPRS – May receive Packet paging – No data reception or transmission

10 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 9 Mobility Management GPRS Attach 1. GPRS Attach Request 2. Authentication 3. Update Location (GPRS) 4. Insert Subscriber Data 5. Location Update (GSM) 6. GPRS Attach Accept 7. Attach complete

11 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 10 Mobility Management Routing Area Update 1. RA Update Request (old RAI) 2. DNS Query: for old RAI 3. SGSN Context Request 4. SGSN Context Response 5. Forward Packets 6. Update PDP Context Request: of new RAI 7. Update PDP Context Response 8. RA Update Accept

12 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 11 Session Management Notion of QoS n QoS = Quality of Service n 5 Classes as specified in ETSI Service Precedence / Priority Delay Mean Throughput Peak Througput Reliability n FTP (NRT): – Service: minor – Delay: < 7 sec (most likely Best effort) – Mean throughput: 4.4 kbps – Peak throughput: N/A – Reliability: high to medium redundancy n Video Streaming (RT): – Service: medium – Delay: < 7 sec (most likely Best effort) – Mean throughput: 44 kbps – Peak throughput: 64 kbps – Reliability: medium to low (UDP protocol)

13 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 12 Session Management Notion of PDP context n Packet Data Protocol context: – set of information stored in mobile, SGSN and GGSN – allow packet data transfer between a certain type of network and the mobile n PDP context contains: Main Field Description type of PDP network IP, X25 …. Mobile address IP address or X.121 address for X25 network SGSN address IP address of the serving SGSN NSAPI Network Service Access Point QoS Profile Quality of service negociated for this PDP context Access Point Name APN (service) requested by the mobile (ie WAP, internet…)

14 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 13 Session Management PDP Context Activation 1. Activate PDP Context Req 2. DNS Query 3. Create PDP Context Req 4. Create PDP Context Rsp 5. Activate PDP Context Ack

15 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 14 Session Management Data Transfer src dst MobileServer SGSNGGSN SNDCP IP GTP IP G-CDR S-CDR

16 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 15 Radio Resource Management Notion of GPRS territory CCCHTCH TRX 1 TRX 2 Default GPRS Capacity Dedicated GPRS Capacity GSM Territory GPRS Territory Territory border move based On GSM and GPRS traffic load evolution

17 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 16 Radio Resource Management Physical Layer Block 0Block 1Block 2TBlock 3Block 4Block 5iBlock 6Block 7Block 8iBlock 9Block 10Block 11i GPRS multiframe = 52 TDMA frame=240 ms 12 blocks of 4 radio burst each TDMA frame=4,615 ms Each block can transfer one GPRS logical channel information

18 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 17 Radio Resource Management Logical Signalling for GPRS

19 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 18 Radio Resource Management Timeslot sharing n GPRS data transfer = discontinuous series of Temporary Block Flows. – 1 TBF = 1 user (with a given TFI, TLLI, USF) – 1 TBF can be transferred onto several radio timeslots n Data transfer = Uplink / Downlink TBF (Temporary Block Flow) Assignment – Timeslots allocation GSM CCCH channels (RACH - AGCH - PCH) (GPRS - phase 1) – GPRS phase 2: dedicated common control channels (PBCCH/PCCCH) TDMA frame TBF4 TBF3TBF2 TBF3TBF1 TSL 0 BCCH TSL 1 TCH TSL 2 TCH TSL 3 TCH TSL 4 PDCH TSL 5 PDCH TSL 6 PDCH TSL 7 PDCH

20 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 19 GPRS Part 2 Content NETWORK PLANNING ANALYSIS AND OPTIMISATION TOOLS FOR GPRS IMPLEMENTATION CONSTRAINTS … to practice NETWORK DIMENSIONING

21 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 20 Implementation Constraints Upgrade of GSM network n New Core Network – GPRS backbone is an IP network New approach in Mobile Telecommunication First interaction between IT and mobile telecom network dept. n Multi-supplier solution – Interoperability problems Interface Gb, Gs, Gr are standardised by ETSI but…  Immature specification leads to uncompatibility  Gb interface is very sensible Mobile / network compatibility over air interface  PBCCH problem

22 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 21 Implementation Constraints Software Releases n Release compatibility – Network is often heterogeneous  Different generation of base stations  Different switch and BSC – Release are delivered at different times n Incomplete GPRS features – QoS not implemented in first release – PBCCH not implemented in first release n immature ETSI specifications – Suppliers follow different versions

23 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 22 Implementation Constraints Heterogeneous BSS Network n Problem of uniform Quality of Service (different SW/HW, different problems) n Complex network evolution (i.e. new feature cannot be implemented country wide) North region - BSS Network Supplier B South region - BSS Network Supplier A GPRS Core Network

24 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 23 Implementation Constraints Handsets & Services n Limitation in mutlislot & coding scheme capability: First handsets: 2+1 (i.e. 2 TSL DL / 1 TSL UL)  24 kbps DL / 12 kbps UL Current handsets: 4+1  48 kbps DL / 12 kbps UL n ETSI specifications problems Lots of change request PBCCH not supported by network and first GPRS mobiles n Poor content for GPRS Services Lack of «adapted» phones Lack of «killer» applications

25 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 24 GPRS Dimensioning Number of GPRS users Paquet transfer per users Quality of Service Coverage area Peak hours GPRS Territory size Number of cells TRX upgrade Signalling increase Transmission capacity (Abis/Gb) Bearer size Number of PCU Radio Dimensioning Network Dimensioning New hardware requirements

26 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 25 Network Planning n Reuse existing GSM coverage n Reuse of GSM signalling and traffic plan n New core network planning n New Routing Area Planning

27 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 26 Analysis and optimisation n Traffic analysis

28 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 27 Analysis and optimisation n Performance Analysis – Access to Network resource % % % 298

29 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 28 Analysis and optimisation n Performance Analysis – Session success % 45.4% 13 % 87%

30 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 29 Analysis and optimisation Tools for GPRS n Probe System Data capture across all GPRS network interfaces MSCVLRHLR SGSN GGSN BSC BTS BG internet Foreign PLNM Gb Gn Gp Gc Gr Gs Gi 1. Data capture 2. Data data storage 3. Data analysis

31 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 30 Analysis and optimisation Tools for GPRS n Protocol analyser In depth signalling study

32 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 31 Documentation n Réseaux GSM (ISBN )  Xavier Lagrange, Philippe Godlewski, Sami Tabbane n Ingénierie des réseaux cellulaires (ISBN )  Sami Tabbane n The GSM Evolution - Mobile Packet Data Services (ISBN )  Peter Stuckmann n GPRS Signalling & Protocol Analysis – Vol. 1  Gunnar Heine

33 January 2004 F. Michaud – GPRS course Page 32 That’s all Folks!


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