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DNA and Transcription Tutorial Place your keyboard aside. Only use the mouse. Start from Beginning Transcription Predicting Transcription Review Questions.

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Presentation on theme: "DNA and Transcription Tutorial Place your keyboard aside. Only use the mouse. Start from Beginning Transcription Predicting Transcription Review Questions."— Presentation transcript:

1 DNA and Transcription Tutorial Place your keyboard aside. Only use the mouse. Start from Beginning Transcription Predicting Transcription Review Questions

2 Genes and DNA DNA can be divided into segments called genes. It is estimated that human DNA is composed of ~25,000 genes among its 46 total chromosomes. Quick Review. Proteins are made which smaller units called? monosaccharideAmino acid nucleotideFatty acid Monosaccharides make up complex sugars Fatty acids make up lipids Nucleotides make up nucleic acids

3 Genes Correct. Amino acids link to create proteins. Genes (small sections of DNA) are blueprints to make proteins for use throughout the body. Genes are found inside the nucleus of cells, but proteins are created outside of the nucleus. Quick review. Which organelle creates proteins? mitochondria lysosome chloroplast ribosome back Lysosomes break down food and pathogens Mitochondria creates ATP energy Chloroplasts creates sugars

4 Meet Melissa Yes! Ribosomes make proteins. Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex. The construction blueprint holds the information needed to create the high- rise apartment complex. A gene is like the construction blueprints. The gene holds the information needed to make a protein. Quick Review. A gene is a small section of? DNAProteinsRNARibosomes back Proteins are created from DNA codes RNA is created from DNA. Stay tuned. Ribosomes make proteins

5 Transcription The DNA undergoes a process called transcription. Transcription is the process where the DNA code of a gene is used to make a molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA). Examine the picture. The red letters are DNA nucleotides. The green letters are mRNA being created. Notice how mRNA nucleotides are attaching to the DNA sequence. Quick review: Where is DNA stored? CytoplasmNucleusVesicleVacuole Correct! Let’s move on though… back Vacuole stores water and waste Cytoplasm contains many organelles, but not the DNA Vesicles usually transport proteins

6 Transcription (continued) Yes, the nucleus stores DNA. Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. sugar T T TAA A A T C CCG GG phosphate Nitrogen base Key back

7 Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. sugar T T TAA A A T C CCG GG phosphate Nitrogen base Key RNA Polymerase back

8 Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. sugar T T TAA A A T C CCG GG phosphate Nitrogen base Key RNA Polymerase back

9 Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. sugar T T TAA A A T C CCG GG phosphate Nitrogen base Key RNA Polymerase back

10 Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. sugar T T TAA A A T C CC G GG phosphate Nitrogen base Key RNA Polymerase back

11 Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. sugar T T TAA A A T C CC G GG phosphate Nitrogen base Key RNA Polymerase back

12 Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. sugar T T TAA A A T C C C G GG phosphate Nitrogen base Key RNA Polymerase back

13 Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. sugar T T TAA A A T C CCG GG phosphate Nitrogen base Key RNA Polymerase back

14 Transcription (continued) Now that the DNA has been separated, free-floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the now open DNA nucleotides. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG RNA Polymerase back

15 Transcription Rules Now that the DNA has been separated, free-floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the now open DNA nucleotides. Before performing transcription, remember the table below. DNAmRNA AU TA CG GC back

16 Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which mRNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG A AU C G Click one back Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again

17 Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG AU AU C G Click one back Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again

18 Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG AUG AU C G Click one back Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again

19 U Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG AUG AU C G Click one back Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again

20 Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG AUGUC AU C G Click one back Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again

21 Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG AUGUCC AU C G Click one back Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again

22 Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG AUGUCCA AU C G Click one back Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again

23 Predicting Transcription Now that the mRNA is complete, it will detach from the DNA… Exit the nucleus… And then hook up with a ribosome. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG AUGUCCA back

24 Predicting Transcription Now that the mRNA is complete, it will detach from the DNA… Exit the nucleus… And then hook up with a ribosome. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG AUGUCCA back

25 Fate of the DNA? Once the mRNA breaks away, the DNA will recombine. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG back

26 Fate of the DNA? Once the mRNA breaks away, the DNA will recombine. T T TAA A A T C CCG GG back

27 The final stage. Remember Melissa? Her blueprint for the apartment complex needs to be copied and then taken to the construction site. In this analogy, Melissa would fax the blueprints over to the construction site. The fax would be the mRNA. The construction site is the ribosome. Now that a copy of the blueprint has arrived, the construction team can begin to build the apartment complex. In a cell, now that the mRNA has arrived, the ribosome has the instructions to begin to make a protein. back

28 AUGUCCA The final stage. mRNA makes a copy of the DNA… the mRNA exits the nucleus… the mRNA links up with a ribosome. ribosome Once at the ribosome, the process called translation will begin. Translation is the process where a ribosome builds a protein. The details of translation will be discussed another day. For now, let’s review. back

29 Final Review #1 What will eventually be created by the DNA code of a gene? proteinribosomenucleolus back Ribosomes will be used to make proteins The nucleolus makes ribosomes

30 Final Review #2 Correct! Now try this one… RNA polymerase separates DNA at the start of which process? transcriptiontranslationreplication back We will discuss translation another day DNA helicase separates DNA during replication

31 Final Review #3 Correct. Now try this one… RNA polymerase is a type of which organic molecule? Nucleic AcidCarbohydrateLipidProteins/enzyme back Which chemicals end with ASE?

32 Final Review #4 Correct! Now try this one… Which shows the process of transcription done properly? Key Black = DNA Red = mRNA back Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again

33 Final Review #5 Correct. Now try this one… After exiting the nucleus, where will the finished mRNA travel? ribosomemitochondrianucleolus back Mitochondria makes ATP energy. mRNA is not needed for this. The nucleolus makes ribosomes. mRNA is not needed for this.

34 Final Review #6 Correct…now try this last one… Once arriving at the ribosome, which process will begin next? ReplicationTranscriptionTranslation back Replication is not performed while making a protein. Transcription already happened to make the mRNA that has arrived at the ribosome.

35 Good job… I hope this tutorial was helpful. Turn in your handout. Feel free to start over if you would like to do some review.


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