Presentation on theme: "PERSONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES"— Presentation transcript:
1PERSONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES Chapter 5PERSONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES
2What Are ValuesValues are the worth or importance attached to different factors in one’s life.Values are ideals that shape and give significance to our lives. They are reflected through the priorities that we choose, and the decisions we make and actions we take.
3What Are ValuesCorporate culture is a system of shared values throughout any given organization.Differences in values may give rise to conflicts between:Organization and employees.Management and employeesEmployees and employees
4Values Versus Attitudes Attitudes are affected by values.Values may be tangible or intangible.Values and their priority are an important part of everyone’s lives and organizations.
5Where Values Come FromPersonal values are 40 to 50 percent genetically determined and other values are formed in early childhood and are affected strongly by the values of parents and the child’s environment.Other important factors are religion, political views, parents, socioeconomic class, exposure to education, television, the Internet, and other mass media.
6Values and Attitudes Values are relatively stable and enduring. If we know an individual’s values, we are better able to predict a behavior in a particular situation.
8Where Values Come FromDaniel Yankelovich - Value patterns that have emerged since the early 1970s:The nature of a person’s paid job is now more significant.Leisure time is more valued.Americans now insist much more strongly that jobs become less impersonal, and more human and humane.
9Social Factors of a Generation Where Values Come FromSocial Factors of a Generation
10Where Values Come From Values can be placed in two categories. Terminal values (goal values) that maintain a high priority throughout one’s life.Instrumental values (means values) that reflect the ways one prefers to behave.Skills – learning and experiences necessary to integrate means values
11Where Values Come FromExamples of Terminaland InstrumentalValues
12Value SystemsValue systems are frameworks (values clusters) people use to develop beliefs about themselves, others, and how they should be treated. (hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values)Eduard Spranger defined six types of people based on their types of value systems.
13Value Systems Spranger’s six value systems: Theoretical person - Individual seeks to discover truth.Economic person - Perceives useful things in life as most important.Aesthetic person - Considers beauty, form, and harmony as most important.
14Value Systems Spranger’s six value systems (cont.): Social person - Values and loves other people.Political animal - Is motivated by power; their values center on influence, fame, and power.Religious person - Values unity highly, and tries to understand the universe as a whole and relate to it meaningfully.
15Value Systems Graves’s seven value levels: Reaction Tribalism EgocentrismConformityAchievementSocial orientationExistentialism
16Value Systems Another way to see values systems Pragmatism - The belief in the practicality of an action, rather than in strong belief in the idea behind that action.Humanism - A belief in the worth and dignity of all people.Idealism - The belief in the importance of ideas and thoughts.
17The Role of IntegrityIntegrity is defined as soundness of moral character. (Morals are means value clusters)Lately, the word has received a new emphasis—especially as an element of trust.According to Stephen Covey, people have developed a focus on personality rather than on character.
18The Role of IntegrityPersonality ethic: Emphasis is placed on being likable, making sure that you are received well, and maintaining a positive mental attitude.Character ethic: Emphasis is placed on principles, beliefs, and strong values rather than upon the use of various surface techniques.
19Values ConflictsValues conflicts occur when one set of values clashes with another, and a decision has to be made.Interpersonal values conflictsOccur when people from differing backgrounds having different value systems have to work together.
20Values Conflicts Personal versus group values Often involve a clash between the individual and the group.Internal values conflictsOccur when people themselves want two different outcomes that contradict each other.Could lead to cognitive dissonance, the emotional state that results from acting in ways that contradict one’s beliefs or other actions.
21Values ConflictsWhen you experience cognitive dissonance, you might use any of these methods to make them appear more consistent and to lessen the stress caused:You can change your original beliefs.You can use denial.You can get into self-justification.You can change your own behavior.
22Values in an International Economy People from other cultures define your values by your behavior.Areas of difference in values and in perception of the values of others:Views of power and authority.Views of the individual versus the group.Tolerance for uncertainty.The value of punctuality.
23Strategies for Success Redefining your personal values: The Rath test:Did I choose this value freely, with no outside pressure?Did I choose this value from several alternatives?Did I consider the consequences of my choice?Do I like and respect this value?Will I defend this value publicly?Will I base my behavior on this value?Do I find this value persistent throughout my life?
24Strategies for Success Building a character ethic for integrity:FocusRespectResponsibilityPrideFairness and equityTrust and being trusted
25SummaryCorporate culture is a system of shared values throughout any organization.Attitudes are often affected by values.Values systems are frameworks people use in developing beliefs about themselves, others, and how they should be treated.Integrity, or soundness of moral character, is an important part of any value system.