Presentation on theme: "Game Informed Learning for Homeland Defense Education Richard White University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Homeland Defense & Security Education Summit."— Presentation transcript:
Game Informed Learning for Homeland Defense Education Richard White University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Homeland Defense & Security Education Summit February 28, 2007
Richard White UCCS Adjunct Professor Education Consultant Retired, USAF Author
Program. The Center for Homeland Security has developed a set of graduate courses leading to a Certificate in Homeland Defense: – Intro. to Homeland Defense – Interagency Relationships – Understanding the Threat – Protection of Critical Infrastructure Benefit. Courses may be used to complete a Master of Public Administration from the UCCS Graduate School of Public Affairs. UCCS Graduate Certificate in Homeland Defense
PAD 5950 Intro. to Homeland Defense Provides an overview of homeland security, with an emphasis on homeland defense and NORTHCOM, its mission, government organizations it interfaces with, and constraints on those relationships. Students gain an understanding of homeland security from the perspective of the Department of Defense, NORTHCOM, and the Department of Homeland Security.
Active Teaching Experience 00 – 03 AF Academy – Computer Simulations 03 – 05 Aesir Group – Role-Play Exercises 05 – 07 CW Productions – Game Based Curricula
Game-Based Learning Game-based learning has emerged as a general name for the use of games in education. Despite early work showing rich inferential learning taking place as a result of gameplay, most game-based learning has been geared towards using a game as a host into which curricular content can be embedded. (Begg, Dewhurst, & Hamish 2005) DHS Jeopardy HSS Hangman
Game-Informed Learning In contrast, game-informed learning suggests that educational processes themselves should be informed by the experience of gameplay – a tenet similar to the principles of contemporary active learning approaches such as constructivism and problem based learning (PBL). (Begg, Dewhurst, & Hamish 2005)
Tip #1: Suitability Evaluate your audience. Design games within their collective experience. Don’t be too technical. “Youth and enthusiasm are no match for old age and cunning.” Students aka “Subjects” Subject #1 - Young - Enthusiastic - Inexperienced Subject #2 - Less Young - Realistic - Retired USMC Let’s hurt him. My Fall ‘06 PAD 5950 class was comprised of ½ military, ½ civilian, ½ 20-something, ½ 40-ish.
Tip #2: Simulation Students respond well to situation-based, role- playing exercise. Design exercises that concentrate on the central issues of the lesson. Lesson: Islamic Extremism Exercise: Before the Court The Israeli Government and Palestinian Authority have agreed to plead their cases and accept the decision of the United Nations to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict once and for all. Each side has appointed attorneys supported by extensive staffs to argue their cases before a UN panel of judges. Both sides will plead their cases together, before the judges retire to chambers and vote to decide who wins the dispute. The majority decision will win. Unknown to students, both sides were given the same background information from which to plead different arguments.
Tip #5: Competition Sharpens focus. Garners emotion. Aids deception. Lesson: Intel Operations Exercise: A Stitch in Time Students employ the Intelligence Cycle to foil a terrorist attack. Students have limited time and resources to track down the terrorist plans. The team that divulges the terrorist plan first, wins. Fooled once, teams this time pooled their resources, but were still delayed by lack of central leadership… just like IC on 9/11.
Tip #7: Consequences Limit future options based on current choices. Students more carefully weigh situation when they understand there are consequences. Lesson: Combating Terrorism Exercise: Brinkmanship In the days following 9/11, the United States quickly ascertained that the attacks were perpetrated by al Qaeda terrorists trained in Afghan terrorist camps run by Usama bin Ladin (UBL). Students will re- enact the negotiations between the U.S. and Taliban governments to try and resolve the situation peacefully. Exercise is modified “prisoner’s dilemma” built on decision tree whose path is determined by both teams’ decisions.
Tip #8: Realism Incorporating realistic, topical themes increases interest and participation. Assign students command roles in strategic, operational, and tactical situations. Lesson: Pandemic Flu Exercise: Survivor Students assign priorities to DHHS Pandemic Treatment Groups for receiving anti-viral medication and pre-pandemic vaccine, then compare answers to priorities developed by the Department of Health and Human Services. This exercise infused the ensuing discussion with vigorous debate based upon opposing opinions and beliefs.
Tip #9: Toys Tactile sensation draws students deeper into exercise. Poker chips, dice, and index cards instill sense of “ownership”. Lesson: National Guard Exercise: National Security Students play the roles of the Chief Executive, National Guard Bureau, and Joint Chiefs of Staff in allocating military resources to emerging national and international incidents. The objective is to limit damage to US national security and homeland security. Active & Guard resources represented by poker chips. Teams were reluctant to share resources to counter emerging threats.
Tip #10: Chance Deterministic exercises reduce overhead, maintain focus, disarm student challenges. Limit the role of chance to create credible exercises that sustain student interest. Lesson: 9/11 Survivors Exercise: Escape Students must escape from a burning high-rise before it collapses. Students are attending conferences in three separate locations in the high-rise. Terrorists have detonated suitcase bombs in three different rooms below. The resulting blast damage, fire, and smoke have made certain parts of the building inaccessible. Students must navigate through unfamiliar stairwells and corridors to find a means of escape before the building collapses in 20 minutes. Students are randomly assigned teams. One team is isolated in such a way it’s physically impossible to make it out before the building collapses.
Integrated Game-Based Courses Textbooks + Instructor Guides 1. The Department of Homeland Security: An Overview. Pearson Custom Publishing, Now Available Coming Soon 2. Homeland Defense: An Overview. Pearson Custom Publishing, 2007.
Game Informed Learning for Homeland Defense Education