Presentation on theme: "Biological Richness of Eastern Anatolia (Turkey): A Good Sample to Concurrent Fauna and Flora with Zoogeographical Notes Dr. Ümit İncekara Atatürk University,"— Presentation transcript:
Biological Richness of Eastern Anatolia (Turkey): A Good Sample to Concurrent Fauna and Flora with Zoogeographical Notes Dr. Ümit İncekara Atatürk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Erzurum-Turkey
Turkey shows a notable diversity of habitats, with significant variations in altitude, rainfall, temperature, topography and geological history, which is reflected in its richness of animal and plant life. Its biogeography is therefore of considerable interest. In this presentation, a brief biogeographical analysis of the fauna and flora of East Anatolia (Turkey) is presented.
The most comprehensive study and analysis on the Anatolian zoogeography was carried on by Kosswig (1955). The author had summarized his opinion on the Anatolian zoogeography as: “Suddenly one feels oneself in a foreign country, among an unfamiliar fauna from the central or eastern Anatolian steppes, or from the mountainous regions of northern, eastern, or western Anatolia” (Kosswig, 1955). Main reason of this is rather high mountain barriers. In the south and in the north, high mountains separated the central Anatolian lake from the Mediterranean as well as from the Black Sea (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Main current barriers to the distribution of species in Turkey.
to be able to analyze biological richness of Eastern Anatolia truly, it would be good to know about historical backround of the Anatolian geography.
Fig. 2. Movements of the Anatolian fauna during the glaciations (Koswig, 1955).
Fig. 2. Movements of the Anatolian fauna during the post glaciations (Koswig, 1955).
According to “Biodiversity Hotspots” report, there are 34 biodiversity gene centres worldwide. Of these, East Anatolia is situated at the junction of four biodiversity gene centres. These are: 1)- Caucasus 2)- Iran-Anatolia 3)- Mediterranean Basin 4)- Middle Asia Mountains
Animal Biodiversity In Turkey and Eastern Anatolia Based on the distribution of thousands of animal species belong to numerous families in East Anatolia shows the existence of three major faunas, one influenced European- Siberian region, the others by the Eremia and Mediterranean.
Many animal species are introduced to science from Eastern Anatolia as: * Helophorus erzurumica n. sp. * Johnstonıana hakani n.sp. * Terellia askaleensis n. sp. * Ledermuelleriopsis ayyildizi n. sp. * Ledermuelleriopsis bisetalis n. sp. * Ledermuelleriopsis sezeki n. sp.
The number of animal species present in Turkey is more than those in whole European continent (Europe X 1.5) (one point five times more). In Eastern Anatolia, serious studies have not been conducted on many animal groups. And therefore, more studies should be conducted on these groups intensively.
Plant Bio-diversity in the World Endemism Rates Total plant species Endemism Rate 1. Australia 15.638 90% 2. South-East Asia 45.000 88% 3. Madagaskar 9.704 80% 3. Brasil 70.000 78% 4. China and East Asia 45.000 41% 5. India and Sri Lanka 23.000 40% …… ….. *Turkey 12.000 34%
Plant Biodiversity In Turkey Turkey has a rich diversity of plant species and is an active species- formation center and also Turkey is one of the world’s most important countries in terms of endemic plants. Floristic studies have shown that Turkey houses about 12000 plant taxa and still a great number of new species are being discovered progressively.
In Turkey, rate of endemism is relatively high when compared with other European countries. While the rate of endemism is more than 34 % in Turkey, it is: Greece: 14.9% France: 2.9% Spain : 18.6% Poland: 0.1% in some other European countries. The number of endemic species in Turkey is more than 3000. Some countries have very low endemism rate. For example: In Switzerland, there is only one endemic plant.
Turkey is the only country in the world under the influence of 3 phytogeographical regions called as Euro-Siberian, Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian phytogeographic regions. The distribution of endemic plants of Turkey according to main phytogeographical regions is as follows: Irano-Turanian: 1220 Mediterranean: 1050 Euro-Siberian: 300 Similarly, East Anatolia is situated at the junction of three floristic regions.
Turkey is divided to 7 geographic regions. Mediterranean region is the most important area in terms of richness of endemic plants. East anatolia region has also a rich diversity of species and ranked secondly in terms of endemism rate.
In Turkey, Mediterranean region is the most important area in terms of richness of endemic plants. This area constitutes most of the endemic plant species distributed in Turkey. East Anatolia Region has also a rich diversity of species and ranked secondly in terms of endemism rate. The most important diversity centers found in East Anatolia are the Erzincan and Erzurum provinces and high mountains found in the South of Van Lake.
Floristic studies carried out until now have shown that Erzurum province constitutes about 255 endemic plant taxa. Most of them belong to the Aceraceae, Fabaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae plant families.
Many plant species are introduced to science from Eastern Anatolia as: Elymus hoffmanni (Jensen and Asay, 1996) Centaurea yildizii (Türko ǧ lu et al., 2003) Salvia hedgeana (Donmez, 2001) Vicia erzurumica (Erik and Demirkuş, 1998)
These plants are known as “crying tulip” ‘’reverse tulip’’ or “crying bride” among Turkish people. It is believed that the “crying tulip’’ was grown using Mother Marry tears as nutrient after Jesus Christ was crucified. Therefore, this flower is holly among many christians.
In Turkey, 20 of 43 species are endemic. The “crying tulip” Fritillaria michailovskyi is distributed in Erzurum (Karayazı) province only.
There was a bad event in the recent months. The last remaining 57 species have been removed by foreign experts. Fortunately, they were cought while trying to smuggle the bulbs through the border. Thankfully, the bulbs were brought back to Erzurum, their homeland. Atatürk University ‘ATA Botanic Park’ is planning to replicate this plant. This is a very good recent news.
RESULTS Unfortunately, this diversity and endemic animals and plants are under considerable threat. The habitats in mountainous and coastal dunes are under threat of human beings due to tourism activities. According to many researchers, the wildlife in Turkey is having hard time in regenerating as the other countries on the Earth. That is the reason why it is really important to protect the diversity of animals and plants.
Many plant and animal species are waiting your’s help to survive in East Anatolia, Turkey and various parts of the world. I want to my homeland
It is hopefull observe that there is increased sensitivity towards the protection of biodiversity in Eastern Anataolia.