Presentation on theme: "CAP Mission Aircrew Maj Paul Mondoux Director of Safety NH Wing CAP FAASTeam Portland Office CAP Mission Aircrew Maj Paul Mondoux Director of Safety NH."— Presentation transcript:
CAP Mission Aircrew Maj Paul Mondoux Director of Safety NH Wing CAP FAASTeam Portland Office CAP Mission Aircrew Maj Paul Mondoux Director of Safety NH Wing CAP FAASTeam Portland Office
m Primary Responsibility: Pilot the aircraft in a safe and proficient manner, following all CAP and FAA rules and regulations m Second: Remember that you are a pilot, not a scanner m The mission pilot is responsible for incorporating Operational Risk Management and Crew Resource Management principles and practices into each mission. MP Duties & Responsibilities
m In addition to these duties, the pilot must perform all the duties of the observer if no qualified observer is on board. m In addition to the duties of Pilot-in-Command : Responsible for obtaining complete briefings and for planning sorties Thoroughly brief the aircrew before flight, including a briefing on their responsibilities during all phases of the upcoming flight Obtain a proper flight release Enforce sterile cockpit rules MP Duties & Responsibilities
m Sterile cockpit rules; all unnecessary talk is suspended and collision avoidance becomes the priority of each crewmember. Sterile cockpit rules focus each crewmember on the duties at hand, namely concentrating on looking outside the aircraft for obstacles and other aircraft. The rules will always be used during the taxi, takeoff, departure, approach, and landing phases of flight; but the pilot or observer may declare these rules in effect whenever they are needed to minimize distractions. m Fly search patterns as completely and precisely as possible; report any deviations from the prescribed patterns during debriefing m Monitor the observer and ensure all events, sightings and reports are recorded and reported m Fill out all forms accurately, completely and legibly MP Duties & Responsibilities
Leaving Home Base “IMSAFE” m I llness m M edication m S tress m A lcohol m F atigue m E motion
Safety — Three Rules m NEVER sacrifice safety to save time m Use established procedures and checklists m You may have to deviate from common procedures — if you do, use common sense and prudent judgment (see Rule #1) m The most dangerous part of a mission is driving to and from the airport or mission base!
Safety In/Around Aircraft m No smoking m Keep clear m Fire on the ground m Moving and loading the aircraft m Entry/Egress - normal and emergency m Seat belts and shoulder harnesses (<1,000’) m Fuel management – you have an interest in making sure you don’t run out of fuel. The pilot should brief the crew on how much fuel will be needed and where you’ll refuel, if necessary.
Flightline hand signals Outward motion with thumbs PULL CHOCKS Inward motion with thumbs INSERT CHOCKS Circle with hand START ENGINE Hands out making a pulling motion COME AHEAD
Flightline hand signals Motion forward, pointing left TURN LEFT Thumb up ALL CLEAR - O.K. Downward motion with palms SLOW DOWN Motion forward, pointing right TURN RIGHT
Flightline hand signals Hands crossed above head STOP Slash throat with finger CUT ENGINE Crossing hands over head EMERGENCY STOP
Taxi Mishaps m Becoming a bigger problem each year (#1 trend in CAP) m Pilots are: straying from designated taxi routes not allowing adequate clearance and not considering the tail and wings during turns taxiing too fast for conditions and taxiing with obscured visibility distracted by cockpit duties not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance
Taxi Mishaps m Strategies: Thorough planning and preparation eliminates distractions Crew assignments for taxi If within ten feet of an obstacle, stop, and then taxi at a pace not to exceed a “slow walk” until clear Do not follow other taxiing aircraft too closely (e.g., 50 feet behind light aircraft; 100 feet behind small multi-engine and jet aircraft; 500 feet behind helicopters and heavies) Use proper tailwind/headwind/crosswind control inputs Treat taxiing with the seriousness it deserves Sterile cockpit rules
Taxi m Collision avoidance! Follow CAPR 60-1 requirements for taxi operations. Read back taxi/hold-short. m Review crew assignments for taxi, takeoff, & departure m Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect m Remind crew that most midair collisions occur: Daylight VFR Within five miles of an airport (especially un-controlled) At or below 3000 AGL m Signal marshaller before taxi, test brakes
Safety during Taxiing m Taxiing – all crewmembers assist the pilot Prevent collisions with other aircraft and vehicles Help the pilot find and stay on the taxiway (bad weather, low visibility, night on an unlighted airport) m Be familiar with airport signs and markings Runway markings are white and taxiway markings are yellow
Flying into and taxiing on unfamiliar airports m Small, non-towered, unlighted airports Runways Taxiways Obstacles Services Local NOTAMS
m Larger, busy airports Airspace and obstacles Taxiways Local NOTAMS m A/FD or Flight Guide (Airguide Publications, Inc.) m Download airport diagrams (AOPA web site) m Taxiing around a large number of aircraft at mission base Taxi plan Marshallers If it looks too close or dangerous – STOP! Flying into and taxiing on unfamiliar airports
Airport Signs and Markings Follow the yellow lines Stay behind the dashed lines Need ATC permission to cross the solid lines
Airport Signs and Markings Mandatory signs have a red background with a white inscription May have a row of red stop bar lights embedded in the pavement. When illuminated, do not cross (even if given permission by ATC) Location boundary signs have a yellow background with a black inscription Visible from the runway Visual clues to determine when you’re clear of the runway
Airport Signs and Markings Location signs have a black background with a yellow inscription Direction signs have a yellow background with a black inscription
m Use the Discrepancy Log, especially in unfamiliar aircraft m Don’t let ‘minor’ squawks linger: Lights and bulbs Radios and navaids m Keep aircraft windscreen and windows clean SQUAWKS
Unfamiliar aircraft equipment m Audio Panel, FM Radio, DF, GPS – if you don’t know it, don’t fly it! m Even simple differences can matter: If you’ve never flown an HSI, now isn’t the time to learn it! Sit in the aircraft and get up to speed Get another pilot to tutor you m What does the equipment and gear in the baggage compartment weight? W&B. m Don’t try to bluff
Unfamiliar terrain and weather m Plan for terrain and weather: Enroute Area you’ll be operating in m Clothing, equipment and survival gear
Trainees & Inexperienced Crew m Trainees: Extra time on briefing, duties & responsibilities When not to interrupt (sterile cockpit) m Inexperienced crew (or not proficient): Extra time on briefing May have to assume some duties Check 101T cards m Flight line marshallers may be cadets or seniors on their first mission Be alert and have your crew stay alert
Survival and Urgent Care
What is your most important survival tool?
Your attitude! Having a positive mental attitude is often the difference between life and death in a survival situation. Be mentally prepared to survive in the wilderness for the rest of your life, or it might be the rest of your life!
Preparation m Carry a survival kit in the aircraft and be sure all crew members know what is in the kit and how to use it. Inspect contents periodically m Rhoda’s Rule states, “If you cannot walk from the end of the runway to the terminal without getting cold then you are not dressed properly!” m Consider the weather over the worst conditions you are flying over m Carry your cell phone (fully charged)
Emergency Egress m Prior preparation is important. Follow the checklist to prop open doors, tighten seat and shoulder belts, secure cargo, and turn off the electricity and fuel. m If doors jam, kick them open or kick out the windows. May also exit through the baggage door. m Can’t move the front seats from the rear, so agree on who does what and in what sequence. m Discuss what to do if one or more of the crew is incapacitated.
Post-Crash Actions m Get clear of the aircraft if there is any danger of fire or having it fall on you. m Treat yourself for shock by sipping water. m Check everyone for injuries and apply first aid. m Try your cell phone or radio. Activate the ELT. m Stay with the aircraft if in a remote area - we can find an aircraft but its easy to miss a survivor. m Finally, consider water, shelter and food (listed in order of importance -- you can go for days without food).
Survival Equipment m Water is the most important resource - If in desert areas staying still during the heat of the day and working when it is cooler conserves water m Carry water or have purification tablets m Have a container for water and consider a metal cup for boiling (purification)
Survival Equipment m Signaling equipment is critical m Some of the signals you might use include… Signal Mirrors (best method when the sun is out) Flares Tarps Compact Disks (akin to the signal mirror) Strobes ELT Smoke or other man-made signals
Survival Equipment m If you make your own signal, use the “CLASS” acronym: Color - Make it unusually colored Location - Put it where it can be seen; best is high and open Angles - Because they do not occur in nature Size - Make them visible from the air Shape - Make them an eye-catching shape
Survival Equipment m Ensure all crewmembers know the location and operation of the Emergency Locator Transmitter m If possible, have a small survival manual in your equipment kit with suggestions on food gathering, shelter construction, and other survival techniques
Survival Equipment m You can also include… A good knife Fire starters and matches A space blanket A small first aid kit Rations Anything else that would make you stay more comfortable
Remember... m A little planning and a few pieces of equipment could be the difference between life and death! Prepare for the area and conditions you will operating in and update your survival kit seasonally. Finally, remember your most important tool is your WILL TO SURVIVE!
Urgent Care m About 60% of crash survivors are injured m Affect a prompt rescue Don’t become the second victim m Do not move the victim unless necessary m Ensure the airway is open Clear the airway Rescue breathing m Check for pulse (CPR) m Locate & control bleeding Use point pressure on the injury to stop bleeding m Treat for shock
Urgent Care General Instructions m Do not move a victim except for safety m Do not let a victim get up and walk around m Protect the victim m Use blankets as needed m Do not discuss anyone’s condition with bystanders or reporters m Administer urgent care Determine injuries; get help Know your limits Good Samaritan Law
Biohazards Blood Borne Pathogens m The hazards associated with exposure to blood necessitate training for personnel who might be exposed to blood or body fluids m Included in Red Cross First Aid training now m Know the associated risk before you attempt to administer aid m Obtain and use protection kits
Operational Risk Management m Accomplish the mission with the least possible risk. m More than common sense, more than just a safety program. m Educated (informed) risk versus taking a gamble. m Part of the CAP culture.
ORM – Six Steps m Identify the hazards m Assess the risks m Analyze risk control measures m Make control decisions m Implement risk controls m Supervise and review
ORM Principles m Accept no unnecessary risks. m Make risk decisions at the appropriate level. m Accept risk when the benefits outweigh the costs. m Integrate ORM into CAP practices, procedures, and planning at all levels.
ORM and the Aircrew m Acknowledge risks in order to deal with them. m Each crewmember is responsible to look for risks. m Don’t ignore risks; if you can’t eliminate or reduce the risk, tell someone. m PIC has ultimate authority and responsibility to deal with risks during the sortie. m PIC has the responsibility to inform his or her crew of the risks involved, and to listen to and address their concerns.
Aircrew Briefing m Sortie Objectives m Weather m Altitudes m Duties
Crew Resource Management
Why CRM? m Properly trained aircrew members can collectively perform complex tasks better and make more accurate decisions than the single best performer on the team m An untrained team's overall performance can be significantly worse than the performance of its weakest single member m We will cover behavior and attitudes of teamwork and communication among team members
Failures m Parts and equipment. Mechanical failures m People. Human failures
The Error Chain m. A series of event links that, when considered together, cause a mishap m Should any one of the links be “broken,” then the mishap probably will not occur m It is up to each crewmember to recognize a link and break the error chain
Situational Awareness (SA) m. Know what is going on around you at all times m Requires: Good mental health Good physical health Attentiveness Inquisitiveness
Loss of SA m Strength of an Idea m Hidden agenda m Complacency m Accommodation m Sudden Loss of Judgement
Symptoms of Loss of SA m Fixation m Ambiguity m Complacency m Euphoria m Confusion m Distraction m Overload
Hazardous Attitudes m Anti-authority m Impulsiveness m Invulnerability m Macho m Resignation m Get There It-us
Regaining SA m Reduce workload: Suspend the mission. m Reduce threats: Get away from the ground and other obstacles (e.g., climb to a safe altitude). Establish a stable flight profile where you can safely analyze the situation. m Remember: “Aviate, Navigate, Communicate”
How do we get it back? m Trust your gut feelings m “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid.” Pilot establishes aircraft in a safe and stable configuration, and then discuss the problem m Sterile Cockpit Limit talk to the minimum necessary for safety. Taxi, takeoff, departure, low-level flying, approach, landing
Barriers to Communication m Hearing The biological function of receiving sounds, converting them to electrical impulses, and having the brain interpret them m Listening Correctly identifying what the sender has sent in their message
Barriers to Communication m Distracters Physical/Mental: Noise, static, simultaneous transmissions; fatigue and stress Wording: Incomplete or ambiguous message, too complex or uses unfamiliar terminology Personal: Boring, lack of rapport or lack of credibility
Task Saturation m Too much information at one time m Too many tasks to accomplish in a given time m Usually occurs when an individual is confronted with a new or unexpected situation and loses SA
Task Saturation m Keep your workload to an acceptable level m If you feel overwhelmed, tell the others before becoming saturated and losing you situational awareness m Watch your team members for signs of saturation
Crew Coordination m Understand and execute your assignments m Communicate m Question
Summary m Pay close attention to all briefings m Understand the “big picture” m Watch for task overload in yourself and other crewmembers m 67% of air transport accidents occur during 17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, departure, approach and landing. Keep casual conversation and distractions to a minimum during these phases of flight. m Begin critical communications with instructions, then explain