2Ankle InjuriesAnkle Sprains are the most common Orthopedic and Emergency room visit reason. 45% basketball, 31% soccer and 24% volleyball most common injury.80% are inversion injures caused by excessive inversion and plantarflexion.ATF is most common injured ligament
3Ankle Sprain Signs and Sx 1st Degree- minor discomfort, point tender, little or no swelling or instability.2nd Degree- portion of one or more ligaments is torn. Pain, swelling, point tender, loss of normal ROM. Slight laxity and athlete unable to walk normal.3rd Degree- complete tear of at least one ligament resulting in joint instability. Loss of function, rapid swelling, possible fx.
4Ankle Sprain Treatment RICE-Rest, Ice, Compress, Elevate Rest for at least 24 hours with a compressive wrap and ice every few hours
5Ankle Sprain Rehabilitation First start ROM exercises. AROM-PROM-RROMStretching is important during this time in a pain free range.Strengthening should start as soon as it is tolerated, within 1-2 daysIsometric-isotonic
6Special TestsAnterior Drawer Test (for the Ankle)- Test the laxity of the ATF ligament
7Special TestsTalar Tilt Test- Test the laxity in the CF ligament
8Arch SprainsOnce an arch is weakened, it cannot absorb shock normally.Once a ligament is stretched it will fail to hold the bones in the correct position.Causes include overuse, fatigue, nonsupportive shoes, weight, training surface.
9Arch Sprains Treatment RICE Tape or arch supports Usually Longitudinal Arch is injured
10BlistersAs the layers of the skin rub together the friction causes separation and blisters.The body responds with fluid in the separation which may break and cause an open wound.In not cared for infection may result
11BlisterTreatmentIf closed and small do not open, stop friction from continuing.If open and not flapping leave the skin in place.Protect against infection by cleaning dailyPrevent with proper shoes and socks and by preventing friction.
12Syndesmosis Sprain AKA High Ankle Sprain Syndesmosis Joint is the one between the tibia and fibula.MOI dorsiflexion and inversionOften mistaken for a fx
13Great Toe Strain-Turf Toe Strain of the great toe flexor tendonMOI-foot slipping backward on a slippery surface which forcefully hyperextends the toe.TreatmentRICETaping
14Plantar Fasciitis An inflammation of the Plantar Fascia Plantar Fascia is a nonelastic ligamentous tissue that extends from the anterior calcaneous to the head of the metatarsals.
15Plantar FaciitisIt is a chronic injury due to overuse, unsupportive footwear or tight Achilles.Pain is usually at calcaneous, or the origin of the facia.Untreated it can cause heel spurs, muscle strains or shin splints.
16Plantar Faciitis Treatment Correct training problems Ice Massage UltrasoundArch support or tapingHeel cups
17Heel Spur Often a result of Plantar Faciitis or tight heel cords. A bony growth results from the pull of the facia.Taping can help but surgery can be required.
18Achilles Tendonitis An inflammation of the Achilles tendon. Caused by overuse or a single incident of over stressing it. Can be a result of constant over pronation.Usually the injury is at the attachment to the calcaneus.
19Achilles Tendonitis Signs and Sx Pain with plantarflexion Crepitus in the tendon regionPain and swelling
20Achilles Tendonitis Prevention is the best treatment Ice, Anti-inflammitory and stretchingUltrasound as necessary. What kind?
21Achilles Tendon Rupture Causes include poor conditioning and overexertion, previous history of tendonitis. Can be direct trauma as well.Typically 1 year before return to playTypically rupture2 inches aboveinsertion.
23Muscle CrampsCramps-sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle. Unknown specific cause, but there are many factors that contribute:FatiguePost FractureDehydrationPoor nutrientsPoor flexibilityImproper fitting equipment
25Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome AKA Shin SplintsA result of tight calves, excessive pronation and an overworked tibialis anterior.Usually occurs at beginning of season or with change in workout.More painful in AM when soft tissue has tightened overnight.
26Medical Tibial Stress Syndrome TreatmentIce after practiceStretching of the posterior leg.Orthotics to correct biomechanical problemAnti-inflammatoryStrengthening muscle imbalances
27Stress Fracture Incomplete fracture of the bone. When repeated stress put on the bone is greater than the body’s ability to heal it.Characterized by a specific hot spot of pain, less painful in morning because bone has been resting.Bone scan is only definitive diagnosis.
28Compartment SyndromeSwelling within one or more of the compartments of the lower legMost common is anterior compartment syndrome.Can be acute or chronicSurgery is usuallynecessary
29FracturesOften times the best sign of a fx is weight bearing ability and swelling.Point tenderness is more intense than a fx and not near a ligament.Sometimes a grade 3 sprain is mistaken for a fx.
30FracturesTibia fractures often are very painful and the athlete is unable to weight bear. Swelling is often (but not always) immediate.
31FracturesFibula fractures are often mistaken for a contusion because there is less pain with weight bearing.
32FracturesThere are 26 bones in the foot that can be fractured as well, only an e-xray is definitive, but sometimes swelling indicates a definite problem
33Special Tests Bump Test- Test the possible fracture of the lower leg Squeeze Test- Test the possible fracture of the lower leg.