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Foot, Ankle, Lower Leg Injuries

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Presentation on theme: "Foot, Ankle, Lower Leg Injuries"— Presentation transcript:

1 Foot, Ankle, Lower Leg Injuries
Sports Medicine 1 Lexington High School

2 Anatomy Bony components Tibia, fibula 26 Foot bones

3 Arches Medial longitudinal, Lateral longitudinal, anterior metatarsal, and transverse Shock absorbers Support body weight Provide rigid lever for propulsion Accommodation to uneven surfaces

4 Ligaments Plantar aponeurosis Medial (Deltoid) Lateral
~ anterior talofibular ~ calcaneofibular ~ posterior talofibular

5 Muscles Foot (4 layers) Leg (4 compartments) Anterior Lateral
Superficial posterior Deep posterior

6 Motions Foot ~ flexion/extension ~ abduction/adduction
~ inversion/eversion Ankle ~ plantarflexion/dorsiflexion

7 Foot Injuries Cause Signs and Symptoms Treatment Prevention

8 Retrocalcaneal Bursitis
Cause: Chronic inflammation of bursa from constant rubbing from heel of shoe. S/S: Tenderness, swelling, warmth, and redness TX: Doughnut pad placed around area Prevention: Properly fitting shoes

9 Bunion Cause: Bony enlargement of the head of the 1st metatarsal caused from wearing improperly fitting shoes. S/S: Obvious deformity, tenderness, and swelling. TX: Proper shoe selection, protection devices, surgery may be necessary Prevention: Properly fitting shoes.


11 Metatarsal Fracture Cause: Direct force or twisting or torsion stresses S/S: Swelling and pain. More pt tender and sometimes palpable. TX: RICE, casting Prevention: Avoid getting kicked, falling/rolling ankle

12 Pes Planus Over pronation of foot
Cause: Lack of support in shoes, genetics, age S/S: Foot pain, lack of longitudinal arch, lateral heel tilt Tx: arch stretches, toe curls, ice massage, orthotics Prevention: toe curls, proper shoes

13 Ingrown Toenail Cause: Improper shoe fitting and nail cutting
S/S: Increased pain, swelling, redness around the nail bed TX: Hot, soapy water, antibiotics, raise nail up. Prevention: proper shoes, proper nail trimming

14 Plantar Fasciitis Cause: Running, toe running, wrong shoes (acute and chronic) S/S: Pain near heel. Similar signs as heel bruise Treatment: RICE, stretching, IM, NSAIDs, pad heel. Prevention: Stretching


16 Ankle Sprain Cause: Inversion of the ankle
S/S: Point tenderness, swelling, laxity TX: RICE, rehabilitation immediately Prevention: Strengthening exercises, proper shoes



19 Tibia/Fibula Fractures
Cause: Direct Force, rotary force S/S: Immediate pain, swelling, possible deformity TX: Immediate referral to MD Prevention: Wear proper shin protection


21 Shin Splints Causes: Changes in any kind of training. Abnormal strength in Antagonist muscle S/S: Anterior medial shin pain TX: Eliminate bad changes, modified rest, cryotherapy, arch tape job

22 Achilles Tendonitis Cause: Repetitive weight bearing activities that increase quicker than body can adapt to. S/S: Generalized pain and stiffness around the Achilles tendon. Usually gradual onset. TX: Limiting or restricting the activity that caused the irritation. Aggressive stretching of heel cord. Prevention: Heel cord stretching, proper acclimization to activity.

23 Achilles Tendon Rupture
Cause: Sudden, forceful plantar flexion of the ankle with a chronically tight tendon. S/S: Feel or hear a pop. Feel as if they’ve been kicked in the leg. Inability to plantar flex foot. TX: Surgery vs. Cast Prevention: Stretching and proper care of any tendonitis


25 Compartment Syndrome Cause: Increased pressure within one of four compartments of lower leg causes compression of the structures in the leg. S/S: Deep aching pain, tightness, and swelling. Pain with stretching. TX: Acute~ immediate surgery Chronic~ activity modification & ice and sometimes surgery Prevention: Stretching (Hard to prevent)

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