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MỘT SỐ ĐIỂM NGỮ PHÁP CẦN LƯU Ý TRONG TOEFL. I. SUBJECT & VERB AGREEMENT Please remember that subject and verb in a sentence must agree with each other.

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Presentation on theme: "MỘT SỐ ĐIỂM NGỮ PHÁP CẦN LƯU Ý TRONG TOEFL. I. SUBJECT & VERB AGREEMENT Please remember that subject and verb in a sentence must agree with each other."— Presentation transcript:

1 MỘT SỐ ĐIỂM NGỮ PHÁP CẦN LƯU Ý TRONG TOEFL

2 I. SUBJECT & VERB AGREEMENT Please remember that subject and verb in a sentence must agree with each other. Example:  The elevator works very well. (singular)  The elevators work very well. (plural) 1. Subject separated from the verb: - In English, subject and verb are often separated from each other. English learners have a bit difficulty to decide exactly how they are agreed in person and number. Example: The boys in the room (is or are) watching TV 2

3 - Very often, if the subject and verb are separated, they will be separated by a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase had no effect on the verb. Subject + [prepostional phrase] + verb More Examples:  Several theories on this subject have been proposed.  The study of languages is very interesting.  The view of these disciplines varies from time to time.  The danger of forest fires is not to be taken lightly. 3

4 - The following expressions also have no effect on the verb: · together with· along with· accompanied by· as well as Example:  The actress, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.  Mr. Robbins, accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight.

5 2. Words that always take singular verbs and pronouns:  Some words are often confused by English learners as being plural. The following words must be followed by singular verbs and pronouns in formal written English. 5 any + singular nounno + singular nounsome + singular noun anybodynobodySomebody anyonenooneSomeone anythingnothingSomething every + singular nouneach + singular noun everybodyEach person everyone*either everything*neither * Either and Neither are singular if they are not used with or and nor.

6 Examples: - Everybody who has not purchased a ticket should be in this line. - Something is under the table. - If either of you takes a vacation now, we will not be able to finish the project. - Anybody who has lost his ticket should report to the desk. - No problem is harder to solve than this one. - Nobody works harder than him.

7 Either / Neither: When either and neither are followed by or and nor, the verb may be singular or plural, depending on whether the noun following or and nor is singular or plural. Let's check out the following formulas. neither/either + noun + nor / or + plural noun + plural verb Example: Neither Bob nor his friends are going to the beach today. Either Bob or his friends are going to the beach today. neither/either + noun + nor/or + singular noun + singular verb Example: Neither John nor Bill is going to the beach today. Either John or Bill is going to the beach today.

8 8 3. None / No: 3.1. None can take either singular or plural verb, depending on the noun which follows it. none + of the + non-count noun + singular verb Example: None of the counterfeit money has been found. none + of the + plural count noun + plural verb Example: None of the students have finished the exam yet No can take either a singular or plural verb depending on the noun which follows it. no + singular / non count noun + singular verb Example: No ticket is required. no + plural noun + plural verb Example: No tickets are required.

9 4. Gerunds As Subjects: If a sentence begins with {verb+ing} (gerund), the verb must be a singular. Let's study the following examples. Example: - Working for him is the best choice I've made. - Going out at night doesn't seems interesting to me. - Not studying has cause him many problems.

10 5. Collective Nouns - Many words indicating a number of people or animals are singular. The following nouns are usually singular. In some cases they are plural if sentence indicates that the individual members are acting separately. congressfamilygroupcommitteeclass organizationteamarmyclubcrowd governmentjurymajority*Minoritypublic * majority can be singular or plural. If it is alone it is usually singular; if it is followed by plural noun, it is usually plural. The majority believes that we are in no danger. The majority of the students believe him to be innocent. Examples of collective nouns: - The committee has met, and it has rejected the proposal. - The family was elated by the news. - The crowd was wild with excitement. - Congress has initiated a new plan to combat inflation. - The organization has lost many members this years. - Our team is going to win the game.

11 flock of birds, sheepschool of fish herd of cattlepride of lions pack of dogs Examples: + The flock of birds is circlling overhead. + The herd of cattle is breaking away. + A school of fish is being attacked by sharks.

12 6. A Number Of / The Number Of : A number of + plural noun + plural verb.....: một số The number of + plural noun + singular verb....: số Example: - A number of students are going to the class picnic. (a number of = many) - The number of the days in a week is seven. - A number of the applicants have already been interviewed. - The number of residents who have been questioned on this matter is quite small.

13 13 7. Nouns are that always plural: The following nouns are always considered plural. They can not be singular. In order to speak of them as singular, we must say "a pair of eyeglasses". Let's study the following examples:  - The pants are in the drawer.  - A pair of pants is in the drawer.  - The pliers were on the table.  - The pair of pliers was on the table.  - These scissors are dull.  - This pair of scissors is dull. scissorsshortspantsjeanstongs trouserseyeglassesplierstweezers

14 Lưu ý: DANH T Ừ CÓ (S) NHƯNG DÙNG S Ố ÍT: - Nhóm Môn h ọ c: physics (v ậ t lý ),mathematics (toán) Nhóm B ệ nh t ậ t: Measles (s ở i), mumps (quai b ị ). Nhóm Tên nư ớ c : The United States (Nư ớ c M ỹ ), the Philipines, … - Ch ữ NEWS: tin t ứ c

15 15 Exercise: Choose the correct form of the verb in the following sentences. 1. Neither Bill nor Mary (is / are) going to the play tonight. 2. Anything (is / are) better than going to another movie tonight. 3. Skating (is / are) becoming more popular every day. 4. A number of reporters (was / were) at the conference yesterday. 5. Anybody who (has / have) a fever must go home immediately. 6. Your glasses (was / were) on the bureau last night. 7. There (was / were) some people at the meeting last night. 8. The committee (has / have) already reached a decision. 9. A pair of jeans (was / were) in the washing machine this morning. 10. Each student (has / have) answered the first three questions.

16 11. Either John or his wife (make, makes) breakfast each morning. 12. After she had perused the material, the secretary decided that everything (was / were) in order. 13. The crowd at the basketball game (was / were) wild with excitement. 14. A pack of wild dogs (has / have) frightened all the ducks away. 15. The jury (is / are) trying to reach a decision. 16. The army (has / have) eliminated this section of the training test. 17. The number of students who have withdrawn from class this quarter (is / are) appalling. 18. There (has / have) been too many interruptions in this class. 19. Every elementary school teacher (has / have) to take this examination. 20. Neither Jill nor her parents (has / have) seen this movie before.


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