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Introduction to Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology (GEO 346C) Instructor: Bayani Cardenas TAs: Travis Swanson and John Nowinski www.geo.utexas.edu/course/geo346c/

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1 Introduction to Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology (GEO 346C) Instructor: Bayani Cardenas TAs: Travis Swanson and John Nowinski

2 Hydrology and Hydrogeology Hydrology is the study of the occurrence, distribution, movement, and chemistry of all waters of the earth. Hydrogeology is a subdiscipline of hydrology that focuses on the interrelationships of geologic materials and processes with water. Hydrogeology typically emphasizes subsurface environments and is similar to groundwater hydrology.

3 Why study water? The rise and fall of civilizations are almost always centered around water. Life, as we know it, would not exist without water. The geologic cycle is intimately tied to the hydrologic cycle.

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10 Water resources can only be understood within the context of the dynamics of the water cycle. -United Nations World Water Assessment Programme The world water cycle seems unlikely to be able to adapt to the demands that will be made of it in the coming decades. -United Nations Environment Programme Global Environmental Outlook 2000

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12 Global Water Distribution

13 Basic terms: zones Vadose zone, zone of aeration or unsaturated zone- portion of the subsurface where pores are filled with air and water. –soil moisture or vadose water Capillary zone or fringe- transition zone Zone of saturation, saturated zone- pores are completely filled with water.- ground-water Water table-top of the saturated zone Surface water- ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands Magmatic water- contained within magmas in the deep crust Connate water- water trapped in minerals/ rocks during deposition, separate from water cycle for some time Meteoric water- water on the land surface or subsurface that comes from the atmosphere

14 Basic terms: pathways Depression storage- ice, snow and water (puddles) that is locally stored on the surface. Overland flow- water drainage across the land but not in channels Infiltration- seepage of water into the ground Gravity drainage- downward movement of water in the vadose zone due to gravity. Interflow-lateral movement of water in the vadose zone

15 Basic terms: pathways Evaporation/ precipitation Ground-water flow- any movement of water in the saturated zone Baseflow- groundwater flow to stream Submarine groundwater discharge- outflow of groundwater to the sea Gravity drainage- downward movement of water in the vadose zone due to gravity. Streamflow=runoff Transpiration- moisture release by plants to the atmosphere Evapotranspiration- evaporation + transpiration

16 Overland flow- water drainage across the land but not in channels Interflow-lateral movement of water in the vadose zone Baseflow- groundwater flow to stream Streamflow

17 Water balance or hydrologic equation Inflow-outflow=changes in storage

18 What drives the water cycle? The Sun and Gravity


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