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Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Table of Contents Section 1 The Light Reactions Section 2 The Calvin Cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Table of Contents Section 1 The Light Reactions Section 2 The Calvin Cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Table of Contents Section 1 The Light Reactions Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

2 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 Objectives Explain why almost all organisms depend on photosynthesis. Describe the role of chlorophylls and other pigments in photosynthesis. Summarize the main events of the light reactions. Explain how ATP is made during the light reactions.

3 Section 1: The Light Reactions Chapter 6 A. Obtaining Energy 1. Photosynthesis converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds through a series of reactions known as biochemical pathways. 2. Autotrophs (self feeder) use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds. a. examples: plants, algae and green bacteria 3. Animals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances are called heterotrophs (other feeder). b. examples: bugs, mice, whales, humans

4 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 B. Overview of Photosynthesis 1. Photosynthesis converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds through a series of reactions known as biochemical pathways 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 2. The oxygen (O 2 ) and some of the organic compounds produced by photosynthesis are used by cells in a process called cellular respiration. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP

5 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6

6 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 B. Overview of Photosynthesis, continued 3. Photosynthesis can be divided into two stages: a.In the light reactions, light energy is converted to chemical energy. 1. Uses sun, water, and chlorophyll 2. Produces stored in ATP and the energy carrier molecule NADPH 2.Occurs in the thylakoid mmb. of chloroplast b. In the Calvin Cycle

7 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 B. Overview of Photosynthesis, continued 3. Photosynthesis can be divided into two stages: a.In the light reactions, light energy is converted to chemical energy. b. In the Calvin Cycle, organic compounds are formed. 1. Using CO 2, ATP, and NADPH. 2. Produces glucose and other organic molecules 3. Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast

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9 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 B. Overview of Photosynthesis, continued 4. Equation of Photosynthesis: SUN

10 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 C. Capturing Light Energy 1.The light reactions begin with the absorption of light in chloroplasts, organelles found in the cells of plants, and algae. a. thylakoid b. stroma

11 Chapter 6 Parts of a Chloroplast Section 1 The Light Reactions Visual Concept Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

12 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 C. Capturing Light Energy, continued 2. Light and Pigments a. White light from the sun is composed of an array of colors called the visible spectrum. b. Pigments absorb certain colors of light and reflect or transmit the other colors.

13 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 C. Capturing Light Energy, continued 3. Chloroplast Pigments a. Located in the membrane of the thylakoids of chloroplasts are several pigments, 1) chlorophylls (such as chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) 2) carotenoids.

14 Chapter 6 D. Spectrum of Light and Plant Pigments Section 1 The Light Reactions Visual Concept Light Waves

15 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 E. Converting Light Energy To Chemical Energy 1.The pigments are grouped in clusters of a few hundred molecules in the thylakoid membrane. a. Each cluster and the proteins that the pigment molecules are embedded in are referred to collectively as a photosystem. 2. By absorbing light, pigment molecules in photosystem I and photosystem II acquire some of the energy carried by the light.

16 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 E. Converting Light Energy To Chemical Energy, 3. In each photosystem, the acquired energy is passed quickly to other pigment molecules until it reaches a specific pair of chlorophyll a molecules. 4. The acquired energy forces electrons to enter a higher energy level in the two chlorophyll a molecules of photosystem II. These energized electrons are said to be “excited.” The excited electrons have enough energy to leave the chlorophyll a molecules.

17 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 E. Converting Light Energy To Chemical Energy 5. The acceptor of these electrons from photosystem II is a molecule called the primary electron acceptor, which donates the electrons to the electron transport chain. 6. As the electrons move from molecule to molecule in this chain, they lose most of the acquired energy. The energy they lose is used to move protons into the thylakoid.

18 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6

19 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 7. Light is absorbed by photosystem I at the same time it is absorbed by photosystem II. Electrons move from chlorophyll a molecules to another primary electron acceptor. 8. The electrons lost from photosystem I are replaced by electrons that have passed through the electron transport chain from photosystem II. 9. These electrons are then donated to another electron transport chain, which brings the electrons to the side of the thylakoid membrane that faces the stroma. 10. In the stroma, the electrons combine with a proton and NADP +. This causes NADP + to be reduced to NADPH. E. Converting Light Energy To Chemical Energy,

20 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 E. Converting Light Energy To Chemical Energy 11. Replacing Electrons in Light Reactions a.Electrons from photosystem II replace electrons that leave photosystem I. Replacement electrons for photosystem II are provided by the splitting of water molecules. b. Oxygen produced when water molecules are split diffuses out of the chloroplast and then leaves the plant.

21 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 E. Converting Light Energy To Chemical Energy, 12. Making ATP in Light Reactions a.An important part of the light reactions is the synthesis of ATP. b.During chemiosmosis, the movement of protons through ATP synthase into the stroma releases energy, which is used to produce ATP.

22 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 F. Summary of Processes in Light Reactions Summary Another Summary

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24 Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Table of Contents Section 1 The Light Reactions Uses Water, Sunlight, Chlorophyll Produces oxygen gas, ATP and NADPH Occurs at Thylakoid and into Stroma Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

25 Section 2 The Calvin Cycle Chapter 6 Objectives Summarize the main events of the Calvin cycle. Describe what happens to the compounds that are made in the Calvin cycle. Distinguish between C 3, C 4, and CAM plants. Summarize how the light reactions and the Calvin cycle work together to create the continuous cycle of photosynthesis. Explain how environmental factors influence photosynthesis.

26 Chapter 6 A. Carbon Fixation 1. The ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions drive the second stage of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle. 2. In the Calvin cycle, CO 2 is incorporated into organic compounds, a process called carbon fixation. 3. The Calvin cycle, which occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast, is a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar. Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

27 Chapter 6 A. Carbon Fixation 4. Most of the three-carbon sugars (G3P) generated in the Calvin cycle are converted to a five-carbon sugar (RuBP = ribulose bisphosphate) to keep the Calvin cycle operating. 5. But some of the three-carbon sugars leave the Calvin cycle and are used to make organic compounds (like GLUCOSE), in which energy is stored for later use. Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

28 Chapter 6 Section 2 The Calvin Cycle The Calvin Cycle Summary

29 Chapter 6 Section 2 The Calvin Cycle Ongoing Cycle of Photosynthesis

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31 Chapter 6 B. Alternative Pathways 1. The C 4 Pathway a.Some plants that evolved in hot, dry climates fix carbon through the C 4 pathway. These plants have their stomata partially closed during the hottest part of the day. b. Certain cells in these plants have an enzyme that can fix CO 2 into four-carbon compounds even when the CO 2 level is low and the O 2 level is high. These compounds are then transported to other cells, where the Calvin cycle ensues. Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

32 Chapter 6 B. Alternative Pathways 2. The CAM Pathway a. Some other plants that evolved in hot, dry climates fix carbon through the CAM pathway. These plants carry out carbon fixation at night and the Calvin cycle during the day to minimize water loss. Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

33 Chapter 6 C. Factors That Affect Photosynthesis 1. Light Intensity a.The rate of photosynthesis increases as light intensity increases, because more electrons are excited in both photosystems. b.b. However, at some point all of the available electrons are excited, and the maximum rate of photosynthesis is reached. The rate then stays level regardless of further increases in light intensity. 2. Carbon Dioxide Levels a. As with increasing light intensity, increasing levels of carbon dioxide also stimulate photosynthesis until the rate levels off. Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

34 Chapter 6 C. Factors That Affect Photosynthesis 3. Temperature a. As temperature increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases to a maximum and then decreases with further rises in temperature. b. The rate peaks at a certain temperature, at which many of the enzymes that catalyze the reactions become ineffective. c. Also, the stomata begin to close, limiting water loss and entry of carbon dioxide. Section 2 The Calvin Cycle

35 Chapter 6 Environmental Influences on Photosynthesis Section 2 The Calvin Cycle Visual Concept Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

36 Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Table of Contents Section 1 The Light Reactions Uses Water, Sunlight, Chlorophyll Produces oxygen gas, ATP and NADPH Occurs at Thylakoid and into Stroma Section 2 The Calvin Cycle Uses carbon dioxide, ATP, NADPH and RuBP Produces glucose, ADP, and NADP+ Occurse in the Stroma

37 Section 1 The Light Reactions Chapter 6 SUN


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