Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration These processes are opposites!"— Presentation transcript:
1Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration These processes are opposites! Chapters 6 & 7Photosynthesis & Cellular RespirationThese processes are opposites!
2The equation for photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2Carbon Dioxide + Water + sunlight –make- Organic compounds (sugar) + Oxygen
3Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration are related: The oxygen (O2) and some of the organic compounds produced by photosynthesis are used by cells in a process called cellular respiration.
4In which organelles in cells do these process occur? Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts.Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria.
5Cellular Respiration is basically the opposite of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis creates biomass (organic compounds) by converting light energy into chemical energy (stored as carbohydrate, ATP or other high energy molecule)Cellular respiration is the process by which cells break down organic compounds to produce ATP (energy).
6Cellular respiration is essentially photosynthesis in reverse
7Photosynthesis Energy from the sun: Photosynthetic organisms are vital to the survival of all life on Earth.For this slide show, Diagrams & information are from Holt biology text
8Photosynthesis is vital- because it is beginning of almost all food chains
9Discuss the following: Name 3 foods you ate today & think about how this food is related to plants.What is the difference between an organic compound and an inorganic compound?What is a carbohydrate?How does photosynthesis cause inorganic compounds to become organic?
10Remember: Carbohydrates: Organic Compounds- contain Carbon! Molecules that are a source of energyExample: GlucoseGeneral formula for a carbohydrate is [CH2O]n - where n is a number between 3 and 6.Glucose is C6H12O6
11Obtaining Energy from the sun to make inorganic compounds into organic compounds: Photosynthesis - converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds through a series of reactions called biochemical pathways.
12Part I. The Light Reactions A. All organisms need energy to carry out the functions of life.Where does this energy come from-1. Directly from the sun-autotrophic organisms- make sugar from sunlight, CO2 & H2O (examples- all plants, algae, cyanobacteria, plant-like protists)2. Indirectly from the sun-heterotrophic organisms – need to eat autotrophs )
13There are 2 parts to photosynthesis Light reactions – Light energy is absorbed form the sun and is converted to chemical energy- temporarily stored in the bonds of ATP and NADPHCalvin cycle – organic compounds are formed using CO2 (now using the chemical energy stored from the light reactions)
14B. Capturing Light Energy The light reactionsbegin with the absorption of light in- Chloroplastsorganelles found in the cells of plants, some bacteria, and algae.Inside chloroplasts are Thylakoids, a system of membranes inside the chloroplast that look like flattened sacs
15Light and Pigments Chlorophyll a & b Carotenoids the visible spectrum. White light from the sun is composed of an array of colors calledthe visible spectrum.Pigments absorb certain colors of light and reflect or transmit the other colors.Chlorophyll a & bCarotenoids
16The sun emits energy at a range of wavelengths: the visible spectrum is a small part of that range.
17Chloroplast PigmentsLocated in membranes of the thylakoids of chloroplasts are several pigments, including chlorophylls (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) and carotenoids.
19Light Energy into Chemical Energy Photosystems- In the thykaloid membranes of chloroplasts- are the clusters of pigment molecules that harvest light energy for photosynthesisThere are 2 photosystems:Photosystem IIPhotosystem IThe 2 photosystems have similar pigments but different jobs in the chloroplast:
21Photosystems II & I:Light Energy is absorbed by chlorophyll a molecules.“Excited electrons” in this higher energy level have enough energy to leave the chlorophyll a molecules.the primary electron acceptor donates the electrons to the electron transport chain.NADPH is produced. (now Energy is stored as chemical energy!)
22Water is needed: The electrons are replaced by breaking down water The Hydrogen is used to replace the H+ and the e- used in the light reactionsOxygen is a waste product.
23Making ATP in Light Reactions An important part of the light reactions is the synthesis of ATP.Chemiosmosis is the movement of protons through ATP synthase (an enzyme) & then into the stroma (This causes a concentration gradient. It releases energy, which is used to produce ATP.)Stroma -the solution that surrounds the thykaloid membrane in chloroplasts.
24II. Calvin Cycle (The dark reactions) Carbon Fixation:The ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions drive the second stage of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle.In the Calvin cycle, CO2 is incorporated into organic compounds, a process called carbon fixation.
25The Calvin cycle is the most common way that plants fix carbon Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplastIs a series of enzyme-assisted chemical reactions that produces a three-carbon sugar called G3PSome G3P sugars are used to make organic compounds, (energy is stored for later use.)Some G3P is converted to a five-carbon sugar (RuBP) to keep the cycle going.
27Alternative “Dark” Pathways The C4 PathwaySome plants that evolved in hot, dry climates fix carbon through the C4 pathway. These plants have their stomata partially closed during the hottest part of the day.The CAM PathwaySome plants in hot, dry climates fix carbon through the CAM pathway. These plants carry out carbon fixation at night and the Calvin cycle during the day to minimize water loss
29Chapter 7 is Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process by which cells break downorganic compoundsto produce ATP.Products of cellularrespiration are thereactants inphotosynthesis; they are opposites!
30Plants & Animals:Both autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to get energy from organic compounds and O2 & produce waste products CO2 and water
31Cellular respiration can be divided into 2 stages: glycolysisaerobic respiration.
32During glycolysisOne six-carbon glucose molecule is oxidized to form two three-carbon pyruvic acid molecules.A net yield of two ATP molecules is produced for every molecule of glucose that undergoes glycolysis
33Glycolysis takes a 6-carbon sugar & breaks it into 2 3-carbon sugars
34Remember: lysis means to break up Breaking up the glucose molecule into 2 smaller sugars (pyruvic acid) provides energy to make ATP which is the principle energy 'currency' in the cell
35What happens after glycolysis? If no oxygen is available- fermentation occursIf oxygen is available the krebs cycle
361. Fermentation. Lactic Acid Fermentation 2. Alcoholic Fermentation Occurs if oxygen is not presentconvert pyruvic acid into other compoundsFor example:Lactic Acid Fermentationan enzyme converts pyruvic acid into another three-carbon compound, called lactic acid.2. Alcoholic FermentationSome plants and unicellular organisms, (like yeast) convert pyruvic acid to ethyl alcohol & CO2.
372. Aerobic Respiration Called the Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria.occurs only if oxygen is present in the cell.Called the Krebs cycle
38The Krebs cycle Also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), was first recognized in 1937 by the man for whom it is named, German biochemist Hans Adolph Krebs
39Krebs happens in the mitochondria After the glycolysis takes place in the cell's cytoplasm,the pyruvic acid molecules travel into the interior of the mitochondria.
40The Krebs Cycle: (There are actually 8 steps. Not all are show here) Each turn produces1 ATP2 CO23 NADH1 ADH2
41The Krebs Cycle.First, pyruvic acid (produced in glycolysis) reacts with coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA. Then, acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle.The original glucose becomes completely broken down after 2 turns of the Krebs cycle.2 turns produce:four CO2 molecules,two ATP molecules,and hydrogen atoms that are used to make six NADH and two FADH2 molecules.
42Finally: Electron Transport Chain High-energy electrons in hydrogen atoms from NADH and FADH2 are then passed from molecule to molecule in the electron transport chain along the inner mitochondrial membrane
43Efficiency of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration can produce up to 38 ATP molecules from the oxidation of a single molecule of glucose.Most eukaryotic cells produce about 36 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose.Thus, cellular respiration is nearly 20 times more efficient than glycolysis alone.
44Summary of Cellular Respiration Providing cells with energy in the form of ATP is an important function of cellular respiration.Also: Molecules formed at different steps in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are often used by cells to make compounds that are missing in food.