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The Hydrosphere and Biosphere

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Presentation on theme: "The Hydrosphere and Biosphere"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere
Objectives: Name the three major processes in the water cycle. Describe the properties of ocean water. Explain how the ocean regulates Earth’s temperature. Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere. Explain the difference between open and closed systems.

2 The Hydrosphere One of the four parts that make up the Earth.
Hydrosphere – all of the water at or near the Earth’s surface. Includes fresh and salt water.

3 The Water Cycle Water cycle – the continuous movement of water into the air, onto land and then back to water Evaporation – liquid water is heated by the sun and rises into the air as water vapor Condensation – water vapor sticks to dust particles and form clouds Precipitation – water falls from clouds as rain, snow, sleet or hail

4 The Earth’s Oceans In order of size Pacific Atlantic Indian Arctic

5 Salt Water Seawater is mostly chlorine and sodium

6 Ocean Temperature Zones
Surface layer – warmest layer at the top Thermocline – middle layer, colder than the surface Deep layer – bottom coldest layer

7 Oceans Regulate the World’s Temperature
The oceans absorb and store energy from sunlight. They release energy more slowly than land. So the temperature of the atmosphere changes much more slowly than it would if there were no oceans. With no oceans, the temperature of the atmosphere would change change too quickly for living things.

8 Freshwater Sources of freshwater
Groundwater – our source of drinking water that is collected when water trickles through the ground Aquifer – the layer of rock that stores and allows the flow of groundwater

9 Aquifers Some of your drinking water comes from aquifers
Aquifers can become contaminated by Leaky landfills Chemicals (like road salt) and waste poured down storm drains Fertilizers and pesticides that wash off of crops Saltwater that seeps in from the ocean Waste from nuclear power plants

10 Aquifers Assignment: Which aquifer does your town use?
How big is this aquifer? How many gallons are pumped out of this aquifer each year? How many people use this aquifer? Has this aquifer been contaminated in the past? When? With what type of contaminant? How was the situation fixed?

11 The Biosphere Biosphere – the narrow layer around the Earth’s surface in which life can exist. From 12 kilometers down to 9 kilometers up Why?

12 Earth As A System A system is a collection of interdependent parts enclosed within a defined boundary.  Examples How is the Earth a system? Closed system – energy enters and exits the system but matter does not Open system – both energy and matter enters and exits the system Which type of system is Earth? Why?

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