Presentation on theme: "The Hydrosphere and Biosphere"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere Objectives:Name the three major processes in the water cycle.Describe the properties of ocean water.Explain how the ocean regulates Earth’s temperature.Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere.Explain the difference between open and closed systems.
2 The Hydrosphere One of the four parts that make up the Earth. Hydrosphere – all of the water at or near the Earth’s surface.Includes fresh and salt water.
3 The Water CycleWater cycle – the continuous movement of water into the air, onto land and then back to waterEvaporation – liquid water is heated by the sun and rises into the air as water vaporCondensation – water vapor sticks to dust particles and form cloudsPrecipitation – water falls from clouds as rain, snow, sleet or hail
4 The Earth’s OceansIn order of sizePacificAtlanticIndianArctic
5 Salt WaterSeawater is mostly chlorine and sodium
6 Ocean Temperature Zones Surface layer – warmest layer at the topThermocline – middle layer, colder than the surfaceDeep layer – bottom coldest layer
7 Oceans Regulate the World’s Temperature The oceans absorb and store energy from sunlight.They release energy more slowly than land.So the temperature of the atmosphere changes much more slowly than it would if there were no oceans.With no oceans, the temperature of the atmosphere would change change too quickly for living things.
8 Freshwater Sources of freshwater Groundwater – our source of drinking water that is collected when water trickles through the groundAquifer – the layer of rock that stores and allows the flow of groundwater
9 Aquifers Some of your drinking water comes from aquifers Aquifers can become contaminated byLeaky landfillsChemicals (like road salt) and waste poured down storm drainsFertilizers and pesticides that wash off of cropsSaltwater that seeps in from the oceanWaste from nuclear power plants
10 Aquifers Assignment: Which aquifer does your town use? How big is this aquifer?How many gallons are pumped out of this aquifer each year?How many people use this aquifer?Has this aquifer been contaminated in the past? When? With what type of contaminant? How was the situation fixed?
11 The BiosphereBiosphere – the narrow layer around the Earth’s surface in which life can exist.From 12 kilometers down to 9 kilometers upWhy?
12 Earth As A SystemA system is a collection of interdependent parts enclosed within a defined boundary. ExamplesHow is the Earth a system?Closed system – energy enters and exits the system but matter does notOpen system – both energy and matter enters and exits the systemWhich type of system is Earth? Why?