Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Gil Hanson Daniel Knopf Dina W. Zakaria. Purpose of Workshop 1) Recognize that Ground Level is a serious health problem on Long Island 2) Understand formation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Gil Hanson Daniel Knopf Dina W. Zakaria. Purpose of Workshop 1) Recognize that Ground Level is a serious health problem on Long Island 2) Understand formation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gil Hanson Daniel Knopf Dina W. Zakaria

2 Purpose of Workshop 1) Recognize that Ground Level is a serious health problem on Long Island 2) Understand formation of ground-level ozone and reactions involved. 3) Understand its effects on plants and humans. 4) Identify bioindicators of ozone damage to plants 5) Introduce ground level ozone to science curricula 1) General Science 2) Earth Science 3) Living Environment 4) Environmental Science 5) Chemistry

3 Goal of Workshop To give teachers in high needs schools the information they need to show the immediate relevance of earth science to underrepresented minority students. To give teachers in high needs schools the information they need to show the immediate relevance of earth science to underrepresented minority students.

4 Schedule Monday Morning Morning Introductions Introductions Lectures on Ground Level Ozone Lectures on Ground Level Ozone

5 Monday Afternoon Discuss project topics Discuss project topics Individuals decide on their topic Individuals decide on their topic May work in groups May work in groups Each group targets different topic Each group targets different topic Individuals develop separate lesson plans Individuals develop separate lesson plans Lab Experiment Lab Experiment Begin to prepare lesson plans Begin to prepare lesson plans Identify Bioindicators on Campus Identify Bioindicators on Campus

6 Tuesday Morning Morning Look for ozone damage in Avalon Preserve Meadow Look for ozone damage in Avalon Preserve Meadow Afternoon Afternoon Lab Experiment Lab Experiment Develop a lesson plan: Develop a lesson plan: student handouts student handouts teacher presentation and notes teacher presentation and notes student (lab or field) activity student (lab or field) activity student assessments student assessments

7 Wednesday Morning Morning Visit Dr. Meg McGrath’s Bean Patch in Riverhead Visit Dr. Meg McGrath’s Bean Patch in Riverhead Afternoon Afternoon Visit Dwarf Pine Plains to look for ozone damage on plants Visit Dwarf Pine Plains to look for ozone damage on plants Return to SBU to develop lesson plans Return to SBU to develop lesson plans

8 Thursday Develop student handouts, teacher lesson plan, and test student (lab) activity Develop student handouts, teacher lesson plan, and test student (lab) activity

9 Friday Give presentations on topics Give presentations on topics Develop projects for laboratory at Stony Brook Develop projects for laboratory at Stony Brook

10 Ozone, O 3, is Colorless but highly irritating to life forms Found in troposphere as well as in stratosphere Highly reactive. 10 ppm in atmosphere is lethal

11

12

13 Good Ozone v. Bad Ozone Good ozone located in the stratosphere. It traps ultraviolet rays Protects human life Bad ozone Bad ozone produced in the troposphere Called surface ozone or ground level (O 3 ) main component of smog pollutant

14

15  Very reactive.  Formed by the oxidation of nitrogen gas (N 2 ).  Sources of nitrogen oxides include: 1. Urban traffic 2. Combustion processes (ex: vegetation fires) 3. Lightening storms (Australia and South Africa.) Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

16 Optimum Weather Conditions During summers ozone is at highest levels Increased sunlight higher temperatures (> than 85 o F). stagnating high-pressure systems During winter and wet and cool summers, ozone levels are greatly reduced.

17 Influence of Weather and Episodic Events on Ozone Formation The production of surface ozone air pollution: peaks in the later afternoon at low elevations remain high all day at higher elevations, such as in the mountains. increase seasonally from April through September increased amounts of sunlight higher temperatures commonly occurring stagnating high-pressure systems

18 Ozone & Human Health Effects Ozone attacks lung tissue through oxidization reactions. Ozone attacks lung tissue through oxidization reactions. Ozone acts as a powerful irritant, some compare this to getting a “sunburn” on the lungs. Ozone acts as a powerful irritant, some compare this to getting a “sunburn” on the lungs. Animal toxicology studies have shown that long-term exposure to high levels of ozone can cause structural changes to the lungs. Animal toxicology studies have shown that long-term exposure to high levels of ozone can cause structural changes to the lungs.

19 Ground Level Ozone and Plants Causes foliar injury in plants Causes foliar injury in plants Reduces growth Reduces growth Reduces crop size Reduces crop size

20 Break Out Prof. Knopf

21 For Humans Ground Level Ozone Oxidizes Lung Tissue shortness of breath chest pain when inhaling deeply wheezing and coughing increased susceptibility to respiratory infections inflammation of the lungs and airways increased risk of asthma attacks increased need for medical treatment and hospital admission for people with lung diseases,

22 What is asthma? Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and cough Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and cough

23 How does ozone act in the lung Injury and inflammatory response result in : An increase in small airway obstruction A decrease in the barrier function of the airway epithelium An increase in airway reactivity After a period of weeks following a single exposure, the airway appears to return to the pre-exposure state

24 Which populations are susceptible to ozone damage One factor that explains variability is age, One factor that explains variability is age, young adults (teens to thirties) are more responsive than older adults (fifties to eighties) young adults (teens to thirties) are more responsive than older adults (fifties to eighties) data do not suggest that children are more responsive than young adults data do not suggest that children are more responsive than young adults Children may have more response if they are more exposed (spend more time outside) Children may have more response if they are more exposed (spend more time outside) People with asthma are the most responsive group People with asthma are the most responsive group

25

26 How quickly do ozone-induced respiratory symptoms resolve in individuals without asthma? They should begin to improve immediately upon cessation or reduction of exposure and should have disappeared completely within 24 to 48 hours after the exposure ends They should begin to improve immediately upon cessation or reduction of exposure and should have disappeared completely within 24 to 48 hours after the exposure ends

27 Effects of recurrent or long-term exposure to ozone Some early evidence that long-term ozone exposure may result in new asthma Some early evidence that long-term ozone exposure may result in new asthma young children may be especially susceptible young children may be especially susceptible Prudent to avoid repeated short-term exposures, particularly in young children, until more is known Prudent to avoid repeated short-term exposures, particularly in young children, until more is known Each increase of 10 ppb ozone leads to a 4% increase in deaths associated with respiratory disease Each increase of 10 ppb ozone leads to a 4% increase in deaths associated with respiratory disease 250,000 people die each year from respiratory disease 250,000 people die each year from respiratory disease How about Long Island? How about Long Island?

28 How much is too much More potential for effect with longer time active outdoors and with more strenuous activity More potential for effect with longer time active outdoors and with more strenuous activity Human exposure studies indicate that: Human exposure studies indicate that: levels above 120 ppb, heavy outdoor exertion for 1 to 3 hours can increase risk levels above 120 ppb, heavy outdoor exertion for 1 to 3 hours can increase risk levels between 80 and 120 ppb, moderate outdoor exertion for 4 to 8 hours can increase risk levels between 80 and 120 ppb, moderate outdoor exertion for 4 to 8 hours can increase risk Moderate exertion = climbing stairs, tennis or baseball, simple garden or construction work, and light jogging, cycling Moderate exertion = climbing stairs, tennis or baseball, simple garden or construction work, and light jogging, cycling Heavy exertion = playing basketball or soccer, chopping wood, heavy manual labor, and vigorous running, cycling Heavy exertion = playing basketball or soccer, chopping wood, heavy manual labor, and vigorous running, cycling

29 What is the Air Quality Index? The Air Quality Index tells the public how clean or polluted the air is The Air Quality Index tells the public how clean or polluted the air is The AQI uses a scale from 0 to 500 (0 to 500 ppb for ozone) The AQI uses a scale from 0 to 500 (0 to 500 ppb for ozone) The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of pollution and the greater the health concern The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of pollution and the greater the health concern AQI values below 100 are generally considered to be satisfactory AQI values below 100 are generally considered to be satisfactory The AQI is divided into six categories that correspond to different levels of health concern. The AQI is divided into six categories that correspond to different levels of health concern.

30 Index Values Levels Cautionary Statements 0-50GoodNone * Moderate Unusually sensitive people should consider reducing prolonged or heavy exertion outdoors Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Active children and adults, and people with lung disease, such as asthma, should reduce prolonged or heavy exertion outdoors Unhealthy Active children and adults, and people with lung disease, such as asthma, should avoid prolonged or heavy exertion outdoors. Everyone else, especially children, should reduce prolonged or heavy exertion outdoors Very Unhealthy Active children and adults, and people with lung disease, such as asthma, should avoid all outdoor exertion. Everyone else, especially children, should avoid prolonged or heavy exertion outdoors EPA Air Quality Index for Ozone – index values are ppb

31 How can you reduce exposure to ozone? What is moderate exertion for one person may be heavy exertion for another What is moderate exertion for one person may be heavy exertion for another Cutting back on the level and duration of exertion when ozone levels are high will help Cutting back on the level and duration of exertion when ozone levels are high will help The times of poorest air quality are typically in the afternoon and early evening for most locations The times of poorest air quality are typically in the afternoon and early evening for most locations

32 Why are we looking at plants? Not so easy to look at peoples lungs Leaves are replaced each year. Easier to evaluate source of damage.

33 Ground Level Ozone Causes foliar injury Causes foliar injury Reduces growth Reduces growth Chronic exposure ppb Chronic exposure ppb Acute exposure > 80 ppb Acute exposure > 80 ppb

34 Air Monitoring Stations Eisenhower Park does not include ozone

35 Ozone Oct Biomass burning July 2005 industry and transport July 2005 October 2004

36 EPA Eight Hour Ozone average of fourth highest day in year for three years 92 to 106 ppb 85 to 91 ppb

37 HIGH OZONE DAYS 2009 Report for Suffolk County American Lung Association Suffolk had highest ozone in state Ozone Grade: F Ozone Grade: F Orange Ozone (85 – 104 ppb) : 16 days Orange Ozone (85 – 104 ppb) : 16 days Red Ozone (105 – 124 ppb) : 0 days Red Ozone (105 – 124 ppb) : 0 days Purple Ozone (125 – 374 ppb):1 day Purple Ozone (125 – 374 ppb):1 day

38 Background ozone levels In 1900 = 10 to 20 ppb In 1900 = 10 to 20 ppb Now = 35 ppb Now = 35 ppb If no reduction in global NOx production by 2100 = 50 ppb or more If no reduction in global NOx production by 2100 = 50 ppb or more Global warming will lead to more hot, sunny days Global warming will lead to more hot, sunny days Thus, more ground level ozone added to higher background levels Thus, more ground level ozone added to higher background levels

39 Air Monitoring Stations Eisenhower Park does not include ozone

40

41 Break Out

42 Ozone Air Pollution is Harmful to Plants Plants take in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. When carbon dioxide enters stoma Ozone also enters the stoma Ozone damages cells

43

44 Open top field chambers to control ozone

45

46 How To Identify Ozone Injury 1. 1.Look for ozone injury during the mid to late summer. July to mid-September 2. 2.Find an opening with full sunlight exposure Select areas with no obvious conditions that would cause mimicking symptoms of ozone injury Look for symptoms on mature leaves that are in full sunlight.

47 Symptoms of Ozone Injury Stipples (small darkly pigmented areas ~2-4 mm diameter) Bronzing and reddening Chlorosis Necrosis

48 If the answer is yes to the following, the damage is probably due to ozone Is there any stippling? Is there any reddening and/or confluent, even discoloration? Do the symptoms occur on the upper leaf surface only? Are the symptom expressed between the veins only? Are the symptoms evenly distributed? Are the symptoms more developed on the older leaves

49 Bio-indicator Species widely distributed regionally are easily identified in the field exhibit foliar symptoms in the field at ambient ozone concentrations that can be easily recognized as ozone injury by subject matter experts ozone sensitivity has been confirmed at realistic ozone concentrations in exposure chambers

50 Some Long Island Bio-indicators Sweet-Gum Tulip Tree (yellow-poplar) Black Locust Winged Sumac Tall Milkweed Common milkweed Black Cherry Northern Fox Grape Cone Flower

51 How To Identify Ozone Injury a)The typical symptom of ozone is an upper leaf surface interveinal stipple. Stipple is the discoloration of small groups of cells between the veins, appearing as uniformly sized red to brown spots. Yellow poplar leaf with interveinal stipple

52 Yellow Poplar ozone damage stippling and chlorosis

53 Coneflower

54 Bronzing of Bean Canopy

55 Chlorosis Watermelon Necrosis

56 Ozone damage Clover

57 Undamaged Milkweed Damaged

58 Older milkweed leaves more damaged than younger leaves

59 How To Identify Ozone Injury d)Shaded portions of overlapped leaves do not show visible ozone injury. If you move a leaf with ozone injury that is overlapping another leaf with injury, you should see no injury on the lower leaf where the top leaf covered it. Absence of injury on the shaded portion of exposed leaf.

60 Stippled poison ivy, Port Jefferson

61 Stippling on sweet gum SBU Campus

62 Close up of sweet gum. Covered part of leaf is not damaged.

63 Virginia Creeper, Life Sciences

64 Tulip Tree (Yellow Poplar) in Avalon Park

65 Blackberry in Avalon Park

66 Ozone damaged beans

67 Huckleberry, Dwarf Pine Plains, Westhampton

68 Extent of foliar injury training

69 Blackberry Stippling = 5%

70 Blackberry Stippling = 20%

71 Blackberry Stippling = 38%

72 Blackberry Stippling = 46%

73 Blackberry Stippling = 62%

74 Important web sites DEC monitoring sites DEC monitoring sites Ground Level Ozone Primer for teachers Ground Level Ozone Primer for teachers More detailed look at ground level ozone More detailed look at ground level ozone Identify Ozone Injury on Eastern Forest Bioindicator Plants Identify Ozone Injury on Eastern Forest Bioindicator Plants Training on extent of damage to leaves Training on extent of damage to leaves Using Sensitive Plants as Bioindicators - Implementation Guide Using Sensitive Plants as Bioindicators - Implementation Guide Tropospheric Ozone Research Project - For students Madison, WI Tropospheric Ozone Research Project - For students Madison, WI

75 How to distinguish ozone damage on milkweed milkweed/slideShowIndex.htm milkweed/slideShowIndex.htm Extent of foliar injury training

76 The End


Download ppt "Gil Hanson Daniel Knopf Dina W. Zakaria. Purpose of Workshop 1) Recognize that Ground Level is a serious health problem on Long Island 2) Understand formation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google