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A.What is a mineral? Mineral Characteristics shared by all minerals: 1. Natural –occurs naturally –NOT manmade
What is a mineral? 1. Natural 2. Inorganic –Is not alive –Was never alive
What is a mineral? 1. Natural 2. Inorganic 3. Crystalline –Atoms are arranged in an orderly pattern
What is a mineral? 1. Natural 2. Inorganic 3. Crystalline 4. Definite chemical composition –Chemical formula –SiO 2 is Quartz
What is a mineral? 1. Natural 2. Inorganic 3. Crystalline 4. Definite chemical composition 5. Solid –Not a gas, not a liquid
How will we remember this? Natural Inorganic Crystalline Definite chemical composition Solid
Mineral Characteristics shared by all minerals: Now I Can Define mineralS! Natural Inorganic Crystalline Definite chemical composition Solid
B. Physical Properties of Minerals 1. Color –First impression –Not very reliable because lots of minerals can occur in many different colors
Quartz Purple Amethyst
Fluorite Clear Blue Green Purple
Physical Properties of Minerals 1. Color 2. Streak –The TRUE color of a mineral –Color of a mineral’s powder
Streak Minerals with a hardness greater than “7” usually don’t create a streak on the streak plate because they are harder than the Porcelain tile (unless the streak plate is specially made).
Physical Properties of Minerals 1. Color 2. Streak 3. Hardness –A mineral’s resistance to being scratched –Mohs Hardness Scale from 1-10 Hardness depends on how “tightly packed” the atoms are
Mohs Hardness Scale 1 Talc 2 Gypsum 3 Calcite 4 Fluorite 5 Apatite 6 Potassium feldspar 7 Quartz 8 Topaz 9 Corundum 10 Diamond Hardest Softest
Physical Properties of Minerals 1. Color 2. Streak 3. Hardness 4. Cleavage –Splits along definite planes
“Cleav” = to split Cleaver
Physical Properties of Minerals 1. Color 2. Streak 3. Hardness 4. Cleavage 5. Fracture –Breaks irregularly, jagged edges
Physical Properties of Minerals 1. Color 2. Streak 3. Hardness 4. Cleavage 5. Fracture 6. Luster –How light shines off a mineral –Metallic or Nonmetallic
Luster Metallic Nonmetallic
Physical Properties of Minerals: Used for Identification (I.D.) Color Streak Hardness Cleavage Fracture Luster
C. Special Properties 1. Magnetism –Attracted to a magnet –Contains IRON, cobalt, or nickel
Special Properties 1. Magnetism 2. Double refraction –Looking through it, you see “double” –Ex. Calcite
Special Properties 1. Magnetism 2. Double refraction 3. Fluorescence –Glows under ultraviolet (UV) light
Fluorescence under ultraviolet, UV light
Special Properties 1. Magnetism 2. Double refraction 3. Fluorescence 4. Phosphorescence –Continues to glow even after the UV light has been removed
Special Properties 1. Magnetism 2. Double refraction 3. Fluorescence 4. Phosphorescence 5. Piezoelectric –Electricity is generated from Pressure –Example: Quartz
Special Properties Magnetism Double refraction Fluorescence Phosphorescence Piezoelectric
D. Identification Tests 1. Hardness 2. Streak (True Color) 3. Acid Test –Use hydrochloric acid –Tests for carbonate (calcite)
Caves can form in rocks with calcite, like here in Harrisonburg! Acid in groundwater dissolves the calcite
So what is a mineral? What are the characteristics of all minerals?
Minerals 1.Naturally occurring 2.Inorganic 3.Solid - crystalline (orderly) structure. -- Can be elements or compounds.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Minerals of Earth’s Crust Chapter 5 Table of Contents Section 1 What.
What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite.
S olid S olid Cannot be a liquid or a gas Cannot be a liquid or a gas N aturally Occurring N aturally Occurring Found in nature, not man-made Found in.
1.The ten most common minerals make up ______ % of the Earths crust What do the properties of a mineral result from? Chemical Composition 3. Define.
Mineral Identification Lab Purpose of Lab: to observe the various physical properties of common rock forming minerals to utilize the combination of physical.
Target 1: I can effectively communicate the 4 components needed for a substance to be classified as a mineral. What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring,
Minerals They occur naturally in the Earth.. They are inorganic meaning they have never been living.
Minerals. What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.
Chapter: Rocks and Minerals Table of Contents Section 3: Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock CycleMetamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle Section 1: MineralsEarths.
ARE ALL ROCKS MINERALS?. HOW DOES MATTER CHANGE? LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER: NO MATTER CAN BE CREATED OR DESTROYED SOLIDLIQUID:MELTING LIQUID GAS:
Chapter 4 - Minerals. Mineral - definition Naturally Naturally occurring Inorganic Inorganic Solid Solid Specific Specific chemical composition Definite.
MINERALS ARE MADE UP OF SINGLE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS ELEMENTS A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN TO ANY SIMPLER SUBSTANCE EIGHT MOST COMMON ELEMENTS.
Minerals and Mineral Identification By Mr. King. What is a mineral? Inorganic Inorganic Naturally occurring Naturally occurring Crystalline structure.
Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals (part II). Minerals: the building blocks of rocks Definition of a Mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid characteristic.
DO NOW List at least 10 items that you came in contact with before school today that contained a mineral.
Minerals Chapter 3. What is a Mineral? Mineral Characteristics Naturally occurring Inorganic Solid Definite chemical composition Either elements or compounds.
Physical Properties of Minerals In addition to the characteristics of minerals which are required for a substance to be a mineral, there are physical properties.
Minerals & Matter By Aysia, Gabrielle, & Nathan. What is Matter? anything with mass and volume anything with mass and volume.
Objectives Define a mineral. What is a mineral? Describe how minerals form. Identify the most common elements in Earths crust. –mineral –crystal –magma.
Warm Up 9/27 1)The most common mineral group in Earth’s crust is the ____________. a. Carbonatesc. Oxides b. Silicatesd. Sulfides 2)What are the building.
EARTH SCIENCE Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens
Element(ary) My(nerals), dear (Rock)son!!! What’s the difference?
Crystals. Geologists Found in minerals and have a regular geometric shape.
Crystals. Found in minerals and have a regular geometric shape.
Naturally occurring Solid Inorganic Crystalline form Definite chemical composition.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow.
Draw a T-chart in your notebook. Mineral/Non-mineral For each picture that you see, write the item under either Mineral or Non-mineral.
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