Presentation on theme: "Section 1: Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 1: Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table How is the reactivity of elements related to valence electrons in atoms?What does the periodic table tell you about the atoms of elements?
2 Valence Electrons and Bonding The number of valence electrons in an atom of an element determines many properties of that element, including the ways in which the atom can bond with other atoms.
3 How the Periodic Table Works The periodic table reveals the underlying atomic structure of atoms, including the arrangement of the electrons.
4 The Periodic TableAs the atomic number increases, the number of electrons also increases. As a result, the properties of the elements change in a regular way across a period.
5 Section 2: Ionic Bonds How do ions form bonds? How are the formulas and names of ionic compounds written?What are the properties of ionic compounds?
6 Ions and Ionic BondsYou and a friend walk past a market that sells apples for 40 cents each and pears for 50 cents each. You have 45 cents and want an apple. Your friend also has 45 cents but wants a pear.
7 Ions and Ionic BondsWhen an atom loses one of its electrons, it becomes a positively charged ion. The atom that gains the electron becomes a negatively charged ion.
8 Ions and Ionic BondsIons are atoms or groups of atoms that have lost or gained electrons.
9 Ions and Ionic BondsIonic bonds form as a result of the attraction between positive and negative ions.
10 Properties of Ionic Compounds In general, ionic compounds are hard, brittle solids with high melting points. When melted or dissolved in water, they conduct electric current.
12 Section 3: Covalent Bonds What holds covalently bonded atoms together?What are the properties of molecular compounds?How does unequal sharing of electrons affect molecules?
13 How Covalent Bonds Form The force that holds atoms together in a covalent bond is the attraction of each atom’s nucleus for the shared pair of electrons.
14 How Covalent Bonds Form The oxygen atom in water and the nitrogen atom in ammonia each have eight valence electrons as a result of forming covalent bonds with hydrogen atoms.
15 How Covalent Bonds Form Double and triple bonds can form when atoms share more than one pair of electrons.
16 Comparing Molecular and Ionic Compounds The table compares the melting points and boiling points of a few molecular compounds and ionic compounds. Use the table to answer the following questions.
17 Comparing Molecular and Ionic Compounds Try This:Create a bar graph of just the melting points of these compounds. Arrange the bars in order of increasing melting point. The y-axis should start at –200ºC and go to 900ºC.
18 Comparing Molecular and Ionic Compounds Interpreting Data:Describe what your graph reveals about the melting points of molecular compounds compared to those of ionic compounds.Melting points of molecular compounds are lower than those of ionic compounds.
19 Comparing Molecular and Ionic Compounds Inferring:How can you account for the differences in melting points between molecular compounds and ionic compounds?Molecular compounds have weak attractive force between molecules compared to those between ions, so less energy is needed to melt molecular compounds.
20 Comparing Molecular and Ionic Compounds Interpreting Data:How do the boiling points of the molecular and ionic compounds compare?Boiling points of molecular compounds are lower than those of ionic compounds.
21 Comparing Molecular and Ionic Compounds Predicting:Ammonia’s melting point is –78ºC and its boiling point is –34ºC. Is ammonia a molecular compound or an ionic compound? Explain.Ammonia is a molecular compound because it has relatively low melting and boiling points.
22 Unequal Sharing of Electrons Fluorine forms a nonpolar bond with another fluorine atom. In hydrogen fluoride, fluorine attracts electrons more strongly than hydrogen does, so the bond formed is polar.
23 Unequal Sharing of Electrons A carbon dioxide molecule is a nonpolar molecule because of its straight-line shape. In contrast, a water molecule is a polar molecule because of its bent shape.