8The Nile Which direction does it flow? …to the north…towards the Mediterranean Sea.Why was it important to the ancient Egyptians?Earliest gathering place of nomads.2. Source of fresh water for all their basic needs.3. Source of “alluvial soil” for their crops.Trivia: What was a “nilometer”?A device to measure water flow on the Nile.
11What were the rulers of Egypt called? PharaohsPharaoh is Greek for “great house” which meantthe temple and the ruler inside.
12The Pharaohs: More than 170 rulers of Egypt for over 3000 years. Amenhotep III: Ruled for 39 years (died at age 50).Akhenaten: Son of Amenhotep III. Told his people only he would talk to God. Kicked out the priests.King Tut: The boy king and son of Akhenaten. Became pharaoh at age 8 or 9. Died at 18 or 19. Married with 2 still-born children.Cleopatra: The last Pharaoh: she was the famous Queen that loved a Roman General: Mark Antony (he killed himself when he heard (falsely) that Cleopatra was dead. Cleopatra then killed herself by a snake bite).Khufu: (Cheops) Built the biggest pyramid.Ramses II: The warrior-king. Became pharaoh at age 20 and ruled for 67 years.
25Cheops 2 • Built for Cheops…ruler of Egypt in 2500 B.C. (Ruled for only 23 years)• 480 feet high• 6.8 million tons oflimestone (2 million blocks)• Originally flat with white sides!• Built by skilled workersas part of their “taxes”• Construction took 80 years• Each side faces a cardinaldirection (North, South, etc.)• Has windows to the stars.
39Colossi at Hemnon The Collosi of Memnon • Stood in front of an ancient Egyptian temple
40Ruins at Luxor Buildings at Luxor Notice the hieroglypics The sun god: RaThese ancient Egyptianhieroglyphics couldn’tbe read prior to the early1800’s!
41Hieroglyphics Spider pig, spider pig, does whatever a spider pig does. The following was found on the walls of thetomb of Pharaoh Homeratu, near theancient city: Field of the Springs:Spider pig, spider pig,does whatever aspider pig does.
42Okay…how did they figure out what all those pictures were?
43The Rosetta Stone Written in 196 B.C. Written in three languages. Written by the priests tohonor the pharaoh and toproclaim all the goodthings he had doneFound in 1799 by theFrench while building afort.Translated, primarily, bya French scholar thatcould read Greek & CopticNow it can be seen in theBritish museum.The Rosetta Stone
44Hieroglypics (Language of the religion) Demotic (Common language) Rosetta Stone 2Demotic(Common language)Greek(Language of theRulers)
45How to read hieroglyphics: Hieroglyphics are pictures that equal sounds.It is phonetic…no unnecessary letters!It uses almost NO vowels.Combine pictures to make words.Water = W T R =Mr. Bird = MR BRD =