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ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH APOLOGIES TO FRED KLEINER AND WILLIAM GANIS.

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Presentation on theme: "ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH APOLOGIES TO FRED KLEINER AND WILLIAM GANIS."— Presentation transcript:

1 ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH APOLOGIES TO FRED KLEINER AND WILLIAM GANIS

2 IMPORTANT NOTICE  LAST YEAR THE COLLEGE BOARD DECIDED THAT NEITHER ANCIENT NEAR- EASTERN NOR EGYPTIAN ARE “NON- WESTERN”  DO NOT USE EITHER AS EXAMPLES OF NON-WESTERN ART OR "ART OUTSIDE THE EUROPEAN TRADITION"

3 THEME: SANBAN – P.S.  SUMERIAN - © 3500 – 2332 B.C.E.  AKKADIAN - © 2332 – 2150 B.C.E.  NEO-SUMERIAN - © 2150 – 2004 B.C.E.  BABYLONIAN - © 1792 – 1600 B.C.E  ASSYRIAN - © 900 – 612 B.C.E.  NEO-BABYLONIAN - © 612 – 540 B.C.E.  PERSIAN - © 540 – 330 B.C.E.  SASANIAN - © 330 B.C.E. – 636 C.E.

4 THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

5 SUMERIAN ART

6

7 TIMELINE  NEOLITHIC AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION OCCURRED FIRST IN MESOPOTAMIA © 9000 B.C.E. © 3500 B.C.E.:  © 3500 B.C.E.: FIRST CIVILIZATION (SUMERIA)  FIRST GOVERNMENT (CITY – STATES)  FIRST ORGANIZED RELIGION – WHY? RULERS NEEDED LEGITIMACY  FIRST WRITING (CUNEIFORM)  FIRST OFFICIAL/MONUMENTAL ART AND ARCHITECTURE (PATRON = GOVERNMENT) – WHY? SHOWED POWER OF RULERS

8 WHITE TEMPLE AND ZIGGURAT URUK (MODERN WARKA) IRAQ CA. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. MUD BRICK – WHY? NOT MUCH STONE AROUND!

9 DRAWING – RECONSTRUCTION OF WHITE TEMPLE BENT-AXIS PLAN (ORIENTATION) – STAIRS CHANGED DIRECTION 2-3 TIMES TO GET TO TOP TEMPLE

10 MUD BRICK BUILDINGS GET DAMAGED BY RAIN – MUST BE RESTORED FREQUENTLY. AIT BENHADDOU KASBAH (11 TH C.) IN MOROCCO, A UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE, IS IN SUCH GOOD SHAPE TODAY BECAUSE MANY MOVIES WERE FILMED THERE.

11 FEMALE HEAD (INANNA?), URUK (MODERN WARKA), IRAQ, © 3200–3000 BCE. MARBLE, 8” HIGH. IRAQ MUSEUM, BAGHDAD. INANNA  ISHTAR, ISIS AND VIRGIN MARY!

12 WARKA VASE URUK (MODERN WARKA) IRAQ CA. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. ALABASTER. APPROX. 3 FT. HIGH. BAGHDAD MUSEUM, IRAQ VOTIVES MAKING OFFERINGS TO INANNA RELIEFS IN REGISTERS

13 OTHER VIEWS OF WARKA VASE

14 FROM SQUARE TEMPLE, ESHNUNNA (MODERN TELL ASMAR) IRAQ, © 2700 B.C.E. GYPSUM WITH INLAID, SHELL, BLACK LIMESTONE, TALLEST 30 IN. HIGH IRAQ MUSEUM, BAGHDAD ( MORE VIEWS ON NEXT SLIDES) STATUETTES OF VOTIVES (WORSHIPPERS)

15 NOTICE – NOT FREESTANDING.

16

17

18 STANDARD OF UR FROM TOMB 779, ROYAL CEMETERY, UR (MODERN TELL MUQAYYAR, IRAQ, © 2,600 B.C.E. WOOD INLAID WITH SHELL, LAPIS LAZULI & RED LIMESTONE. APPROX. 8” X 19”. BRITISH MUSEUM, LONDON SOUNDBOX FOR LYRE?

19 STANDARD OF UR (WAR SIDE) NARRATIVE, RUNS FROM BOTTOM TO TOP HERALDIC COMPOSITION & HIERARCHY OF SCALE

20 STANDARD OF UR (PEACE SIDE )

21 BULL-HEADED LYRE (RESTORED) FROM TOMB 789, ROYAL CEMETERY UR, © 2,600 B.C.E. WOOD INLAID WITH GOLD LEAF, LAPIS LAZULI & SHELL. APPROXIMATELY 65 ” HIGH. UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY, PHILADELPHIA

22 BULL-HEADED LYRE, SIDE VIEW AND FRONT DETAIL

23 RAM IN A THICKET (RESTORED) FROM TOMB 789, ROYAL CEMETERY UR, © 2,600 B.C.E. GOLD, SILVER, LAPIS LAZULI, COPPER, SHELL & RED LIMESTONE SHELL & RED LIMESTONE “GLUED” TO WOOD WITH BITUMEN, 19” HIGH. ONE OF A PAIR, THIS ONE IN BRITISH MUSEUM, THE OTHER IN U. PA. MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. MUSEUM, THE OTHER IN U. PA. MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. STANDS FOR VOTIVE OFFERINGS?

24 RAM IN A THICKET

25 R: CYLINDER SEAL FROM TOMB 800, ROYAL CEMETERY, UR, © 2600 B.C.E. LAPIS LAZULI. APPROX. 2” HIGH. BRITISH MUSEUM. L: A MODERN IMPRESSION FROM THIS SEAL. USED TO SEAL OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS

26 AKKADIAN ART

27

28 TIMELINE  © 2332 B.C.E.: SARGON OF AKKAD (AKA "THE FIRST EMPIRE BUILDER") CONQUERED SUMERIAN CITY-STATES  © 2250 B.C.E: VICTORY OF NARAM-SIN OVER LULLABI  © 2150 B.C.E: GUTIAN CONQUEST ENDED AKKADIAN RULE BUT THEY DON'T RULE LONG – CONQUEST  NEO-SUMERIAN STATE BUT THEY DON'T RULE LONG – CONQUEST  NEO-SUMERIAN STATE

29 VOTIVE DISK OF ENHEDUANNA, FROM UR (MODERN TELL MUQAYYAR), IRAQ, CA – 2275 BCE. ALABASTER, DIAMETER 10”. U. PA. MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY, PHILADELPHIA

30 WHO WAS ENHEDUANNA? DAUGHTER OF SARGON OF AKKAD POET-PRIESTESS – FIRST KNOWN AUTHOR (HYMNS TO INANNA) VOTIVE DISK OF ENHEDUANNA IS FIRST KNOWN ART WORK HONORING A WOMAN

31 HEAD OF AN AKKADIAN RULER FROM NINEVEH (MODERN KUYUNJIK) IRAQ, © 2,250-2,200 B.C.E. COPPER. 14 3/8” HIGH MISSING

32 VICTORY STELE OF NARAM-SIN FROM SUSA, IRAN © 2,254- 2,218 B.C.E. RELIEF ON PINK SANDSTONE 79” HIGH LOUVRE, PARIS. SUMERIAN INFLUENCE? DIFFERENCES?

33 VICTORY STELE OF NARAM-SIN

34 NEO-SUMERIAN ART

35 TIMELINE  © 2150 B.C.E.: ESTABLISHMENT OF NEO- SUMERIAN STATE RULED BY UR = "THIRD DYNASTY OF UR" ABRAHAM WAS "A MAN OF UR" (GENESIS) ABRAHAM WAS "A MAN OF UR" (GENESIS)  © 2004 B.C.E.: ELAMITE CONQUEST  ERA OF DISUNION)  ERA OF DISUNION)

36 ZIGGURAT OF UR AT UR (MODERN TELL MUQAYYAR) IRAQ. MORE LINEAR ORIENTATION THAN EARLY SUMERIAN © 2100 B.C.E. MUD BRICK SET IN BITUMEN (PHOTOGRAPHED IN 1920)

37 RECONSTRUCTED NORTHERN FAÇADE OF ZIGGURAT OF UR, AND AERIAL VIEW OF ZIGGURAT AND EXCAVATED CITY 100 STEPS

38 ANOTHER VIEW OF RECONSTRUCTED NORTHERN FAÇADE AND EXCAVATED CITY OF UR

39 RECONSTRUCTED STAIRS ON NORTHERN FAÇADE OF ZIGGURAT OF UR 100 STAIRS THAT LED TO TOP TEMPLE (MISSING)

40 SEATED STATUE OF GUDEA HOLDING TEMPLE PLAN FROM GIRSU (MODERN TELLOH), IRAQ, IRAQ, © 2,100 B.C.E., DIORITE, 29” HIGH INSCRIPTION EMPHASIZES IT'S DIORITE: IMPORTED, EXPENSIVE, VERY HARD (DIFFICULT TO CARVE) LOUVRE, PARIS WHO WAS GUDEA? NEO-SUMERIAN KING WHO NEO-SUMERIAN KING WHO RESTORED WORSHIP OF SUMERIAN DEITIES

41 MORE DIORITE GUDEA FIGURES FROM ENVIRONS OF MODERN TELLOH, © 2100 B.C.E., ALL 20” – 30” HIGH. THESE FIGURES ARE? VOTIVES -- BLOCK STATUES

42 EARLIER KINGS WERE DEPICTED AS? WARRIORS WHY A PRAYING KING IN UR? CONSTANT CONQUESTS OF MESOPOTAMIA? ART REFLECTS ITS HISTORICAL CONTEXT: WORRIED AND DEVOUT KINGS USUALLY APPEAR IN HARD TIMES

43 BABYLONIAN ART (AND ELAMITE AND HITTITE)

44 TIMELINE  © 1792 B.C.E.: CONQUEST OF SUMERIA BY BABYLON UNDER HAMMURABI  © 1780 B.C.E.: CODE OF HAMMURABI (  LEGALISM OF WESTERN RELIGIONS  HAMMURABI ENCOURAGED MONOTHEISTIC WORSHIP OF MARDUK (SEED OF MONOTHEISM OF WESTERN RELIGIONS) -- WHY? "FORGET THOSE OTHER GODS. THERE'S ONLY ONE AND HE PICKED ME." "FORGET THOSE OTHER GODS. THERE'S ONLY ONE AND HE PICKED ME."  © 1595 B.C.E.: HITTITE CONQUEST AND SACK OF BABYLON

45 © © © 1400 B.C.E.: ELAMITE SACK OF BABYLON

46 STELE WITH CODE OF HAMMURABI FINDSPOT SUSA, IRAN, © 1780 B.C.E. BASALT 88" HIGH LOUVRE, PARIS BABYLONIAN:

47 STELE WITH CODE OF HAMMURABI THE GOD SHAMASH (SEATED) HANDS HAMMURABI THE ROD AND RING OF POWER

48 HITTITE (AND OTHER ANATOLIAN) ART

49 LION GATE, HATTUSA (MODERN BOGHAZKÖY), TURKEY, © 1400 BCE. (HATTUSA = UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE)

50 LION'S GATE, HATTUSA: GUARDIAN GATE

51 RELIEF OF 12 HITTITE GODS, YAZILIKAYA (TEMPLE), HATTUSA © 1400 B.C.E. CONTRARY TO WHAT WORLD HISTORY TEXTS ALWAYS SAY, CIVILIZATION MAY HAVE ARISEN INDEPENDENTLY IN ANATOLIA

52 RESTORED VIEW OF A SECTION OF LEVEL VI, ÇATAL HUYÜK, TURKEY, © 6000–5900 B.C.E. (JOHN SWOGGER). GENERALLY DESCRIBED AS "NEOLITHIC TOWN" ANATOLIAN BACKGROUND:

53 ELAMITE ART

54 STATUE OF QUEEN NAPIR-ASU, FROM SUSA, IRAN © B.C.E. BRONZE AND COPPER (SOLID BRONZE CORE, COPPER SHELL) 50 ¾" HIGH. LOUVRE, PARIS CURRENT WEIGHT = 3760 LBS.

55 STATUE OF QUEEN NAPIR- ASU INSCRIPTION ON SKIRT THREATENS CURSE ON “HE WHO WOULD SEIZE MY STATUE, WHO WOULD SMASH IT, WHO WOULD DESTROY ITS INSCRIPTION...”

56 RITUAL BASIN, FROM SUSA © 1400 B.C.E. LIMESTONE X 92 CM. LOUVRE, PARIS. FUNCTION: BASIN FOR RITUAL LIBATIONS. DETAIL OF RELIEF, NEXT SLIDE

57 WHAT'S DIFFERENT FROM MESOPOTAMIAN ART? CHIMERAS

58 STELE OF UNTASH- NAPIRISHA, SUSA © 1350 – 1300 B.C.E. SANDSTONE. H = 2.62 M. LOUVRE.

59 ASSYRIAN ART

60 TIMELINE  © 900 B.C.E.: ASSYRIAN CONQUEST OF BABYLON  721 – 705 B.C.E.: REIGN OF SARGON II  883 – 859 B.C.E.: REIGN OF ASHURNASIPAL II  668 – 627 B.C.E.: REIGN OF ASHURBANIPAL EARLIEST KNOWN LIBRARY EARLIEST KNOWN LIBRARY  641 B.C.E.: CONQUEST OF SUSA (ELAM)  627 B.C.E.: DEATH OF ASHURBANIPAL  BABYLONIAN REVOLT 626 B.C.E.  612 B.C.E.: BABYLONIAN/MEDIAN SACK OF NINEVEH

61

62

63 RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING, CITADEL OF SARGON II, DAR SHARRUKIN (MODERN KHORSABAD) IRAQ, © B.C.E. > 25 ACRES. USED EARLY SUMERIAN BENT-AXIS PLAN "SARGON, KING OF THE WORLD, HAS BUILT A CITY.... I BUILT A CITY WITH THE [LABOR OF] THE PEOPLES SUBDUED BY MY HAND" WITH THE AID OF THE GODS.

64 LAMASSU (WINGED HUMAN HEADED BULLS) FROM THE CITADEL OF SARGON II, DAR SHARRUKIN (MODERN KHORSABAD) IRAQ, © B.C.E. LIMESTONE, 13' 10" HIGH. BRITISH MUSEUM. LONDON PREDECESSORS? LION'S GATE, HATUSSA, AND ELAMITE CHIMARAE

65 OTHER VIEW, LAMASSU. NOTE STYLIZED BEARDS

66 HEAD OF LAMASSU AND CUNIEFORM INSCRIPTIONS ON GATE

67 GILGAMESH? WRESTLING LION, FROM CITADEL OF SARGON II, DAR SHARRUKIN, © B.C.E. LIMESTONE 13' 10" HIGH. BRITISH MUSEUM.

68 ASSYRIAN ARCHERS PURSUING ENEMIES, FROM NORTHWEST PALACE OF ASHURNASIRPAL II, KALHU (MODERN NIMRUD), © B.C.E. GYPSUM. 2' 10 3/8" HIGH. BRITISH MUSEUM. PREDECESSORS? AKKADIAN? STELE OF NARAM-SIN (DIAGONAL COMPOSITION, STYLIZED SETTING)

69 ASHURBANIPAL HUNTING LIONS (THIS AND NEXT TWO SLIDES)

70

71

72 NEO-BABYLONIAN ART

73 TIMELINE  612 B.C.E.: SACK OF NINEVEH & ESTABLISHMENT OF NEO-BABYLONIAN EMPIRE  604 – 562 B.C.E.: REIGN OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR II "BABYLONIAN RENAISSANCE" "BABYLONIAN RENAISSANCE" © 586 B.C.E: CONQUEST OF JUDAH AND BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY OF JEWS (LEGALISM AND MONOTHEISM ENTER WESTERN RELIGION) © 586 B.C.E: CONQUEST OF JUDAH AND BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY OF JEWS (LEGALISM AND MONOTHEISM ENTER WESTERN RELIGION) RUBBING OF ONYX ENGRAVING DEPICTING NEBUCHADNEZZAR II (ON MARDUK STATUE)

74  539 B.C.E.: PERSIANS CONQUEST OF BABYLONIAN EMPIRE

75 RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF THE ETEMENAKI (FRONTIER OF HEAVEN AND HELL) ZIGGURAT IN BABYLON, AS REBUILT BY NEBUCHADNEZZSAR II (ORIG. DATE UNKNOWN). BASIS FOR STORY OF THE TOWER OF BABEL?

76 ISHTAR GATE (RESTORED), FROM BABYLON, IRAQ, © 575 B.C.E. GLAZED BRICK. PERGAMMON MUSEUM, BERLIN

77 NOTE SCALE

78 ISHTAR GATE – DRAGONS AND BULLS. ISHTAR = BABYLONIAN COUNTERPART OF INANNA

79 ISHTAR GATE -- AUROCH

80 ISHTAR GATE, LIONS

81

82 PERSIAN ART (ACHAEMENID)

83  TIMELINE  539 B.C.E.: CYRUS THE GREAT CONQUERED BABYLON, ESTABLISHED PERSIAN EMPIRE (ACHAEMENID DYNASTY)  539 – 529 B.C.E.: REIGN OF CYRUS THE GREAT (CYRUS I) AS EMPEROR  522 – 486 B.C.E.: REIGN OF DARIUS THE GREAT (DARIUS I)  486 – 465 B.C.E.: REIGN OF XERXES  521 – 465 B.C.E.: CONSTRUCTION OF PERSEPOLIS  330 B.C.E.: ALEXANDER THE GREAT CONQUERED PERSIAN EMPIRE

84

85 PERSIAN EMPIRE AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT (UNDER DARIUS I)

86 PALACE OF DARIUS I AND XERXES I PERSEPOLIS, IRAN (PERSEPOLIS = ADMINISTRATIVE/ PALACE COMPLEX), © B.C.E.

87 APADANA, PERSEPOLIS

88 RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING OF PERSEPOLIS APADANA HYPOSTYLE HALL = COLUMNS SUPPORTED CEILING

89 APDANA FRIEZE, PERSEPOLIS. WHAT'S NEW? CELEBRATES DIPLOMACY, NOT WAR

90 PERSEPOLIS

91 TIMELINE:  312 – 247 B.C.E.: SELUCID (HELLENISTIC) EMPIRE  247 B.C.E C.E.: PARTHIAN EMPIRE  224 – 651 C.E.: SASSANID EMPIRE (LAST MIDDLE- EASTERN EMPIRE BEFORE ISLAM) WE WILL CONSIDER MOST PERSIAN ART, INCLUDING THE SASSANID ART IN CHAPTER 2, LATER (HOLD THE CARDS!).

92 SHAPUR I DRACHIM, CAST SILVER COINS © 260 C.E.

93 HEAD OF SASANIAN KING (SHAPUR II?) FROM CTESIPHON, IRAQ, © 350 C.E. SILVER WITH MERCURY GILDING 15 ¾" HIGH


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