Presentation on theme: "纳米技术在军事上的运用 Nanotechnology in Military Application 张玉麒 龚晓怡 黄楠楠."— Presentation transcript:
纳米技术在军事上的运用 Nanotechnology in Military Application 张玉麒 龚晓怡 黄楠楠
Appearance of nanotechnology indicates that humans make progress from micron( 微米 ) level penetrates into the atomic( 原子 ), molecular ( 分子 )level of the nanometer level, manipulating single atom and molecule according to their own desires finally and realizing effective control on mesoscopic world （介观世界）. As a significant technology in 21st century, although present condition of nanotechnology is not mature enough, it still has obvious potential in military, greatly stimulating people to seek nanotechnology applications in military. Nano car
Manufacture of Catalysts( 催化剂 ) The technical principle: Nanometer particle has a small size and larger than specific surface area, thus increasing the contact surface of the chemical reaction and the surface effective reaction center can be widely used as catalyst. Moreover, nano-catalyst has high chemical activity, complex grain microstructure （ 微观结构 ）, the unique crystal structure and surface properties of the nanometer, which makes catalytic activity and selectivity higher than traditional catalyst‘s. Therefore, that nanometer catalyst takes place of general catalyst in rocket propellant （ 火箭推 进剂 ） has become a hot research at home and abroad. Application: Nano nickel （ 纳米镍粉 ）, as solid rocket fuel reaction catalyst, can improve combustion efficiency by 100 times. Nanometer explosive has more advantages than conventional explosive in performance. Fuel oil additives which are made of nanometer material can save fuel and reduce exhaust emissions. 铂纳米晶粒催化剂
Improvement in Conventional weapons and Protective Ability 1. The technical principle: Nanotechnology application adds special properties of materials to products or formed a special material on a layer, producing a new performance. 2. Application: Nanotechnology can make the fragile ceramic （陶瓷 ） becomes tough, achieving similar iron bending resistance, or having special rigidity （刚性）. 3. Nanotechnology in manufacture of weapons can not only greatly improve the penetration and damage of the warhead on target, but also improve the protective ability of weapon equipment, and future bulletproof armor car may enable the missile to fall or spring back.
The New Weapons of Future Nanometer Battle Clothing The Technical Principle: Comparing with traditional function, the coating of nanostructure can make strength, toughness, corrosion resistance( 耐腐蚀 ), wear resistance( 耐磨 ), thermal barrier （ 热 障 ）, corrosion, oxidation resistance （抗氧 化） and thermal fatigue resistance performance （抗热疲劳） improve significantly, and one coating can have various performances at the same time. Certain nanoparticles also have some uses, such as sterilization （消毒）, inflaming retarding （阻燃）, conductivity, insulation. With these nanoparticles, prevention of biological coatings, fire retardant coating, conductive paint and insulating paint are can be produced.
Compare with Contemporary American Combat Clothing: The combat clothing which American troops wear has good bulletproof （防弹）, waterproof （防水） performance. But the shortcomings are obvious, namely, too much weight. And it can carry out the combat missions under the situation that a lot of equipments are carried, such as night vision equipment （夜视仪） and other equipments. The kind of uniform is bulky, airtight （密闭） and uncomfortable, restricting the ability of US Army. However, nano uniform just can solve these problems.
Five Major Characteristics: Light: excellent ventilation （透 气） function. Intelligence Computerization: micro computer with nano bulletproof helmet. Protection Function: High strength and toughness. Function of Treatment: Expansion and contraction of material. Function of Stealth: perception of ambient colors.
Manufacture of Miniature Weapons Principle: Nanotechnology can concentrate sensor, motor and digital intelligent equipment on one chip, creating a few centimeters or even smaller miniature device. Micro actuator （微型执 行机构） and other parts which are made by nanotechnology, such as nano wheel, nano spring, nano nozzle （喷嘴）, nano bearing （轴承 ）, micro-sensor, can be made into a series of new products. Application: The United States developed small intelligent robots. Some of them are as big as shoe boxes, the others are as small as coins. They can crawl （爬行）, jump even fly over minefields （雷区）, across the desert or the beach, collecting information for army or headquarters lived thousands of kilometers. Micro mechanical weapons can also be used for Identification of Friend or Foe, detection of nuclear pollution （核污染） and chemical agents （化学毒剂）, unmanned reconnaissance aircrafts （无人侦察机） and so on.
Manufacture of Micro Satellite and Nano-satellite Features: Special minature integrated circuit （专用微型集成电路） takes place of the system which is used in satellite now. Micro satellite and nano satellite has the advantages of small volume, light weight, survival ability and it can not lost all functions even if it is attacked. The cost of development is low and no need of large experimental facilities （实 验设施） and large span workshops; the launch is easy and no need of large vehicle emission. A small rocket can be launched hundreds and thousands, thus forms the satellite network through different tracks, realizing the cover of the surface of the earth.
Raise Stealth Performance （隐身性能） of Military Equipments The Technical Principle: In a wide Spectrum （频谱） range, some nano solid have a homogeneous absorption of electromagnetic wave. The absorption effect of a few ten-nanometer thick solid film is as same as the prior wave-absorbing material's. The camouflage coatings black powder developed in the United States has the absorption rate of radar is 99%.
For the moment, there are several types of nanometer radar wave- absorber are studied all over the world. The main type is nanometer oxide absorber （纳米 氧化物吸收剂）, including Fe3O4, ZnO, NiO, MoO2 and LaFeO3 single oxide composite oxide nano powder. They not only have good wave-absorbing （吸波） performance, but also have a suppression of infrared radiation （抑制红外辐射） and several kinds of functions. In addition, the combination which combines the composite powder of Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and polymer fiber （高分子纤维） has a strong absorption of infrared band （红外波段）. 第一代隐身飞机 F-117
The mechanism of nanoparticles insulate infrared and electromagnetic wave has two main aspects: The size of nano particle is much smaller than the infrared‘s and radar wavelength’s, so the wave transmissivity （透射率） of nanoparticles materials is much stronger than conventional materials‘. This greatly reduced wave reflectivity （反射率） and weakened the received reflection signals of infrared and radar, achieving the effect of stealth. The surface area of nanometer particle material is much larger than conventional coarse powder's, in a result, the wave-absorbing rate of infrared light and electromagnetic is higher than conventional materials'. This reduced the intensity of the reflected signal of the infrared sensor and radar. Therefore, it is difficult to find the object being detected and so the insulation effect works. B-2 通体乌黑，无机身、 无前翼、无尾翼，又喜欢 在若暗不明的夜空出没， 象 “ 黑色幽灵 ” 。 是目前世 界上最居代表性的隐身兵 器。
Application: If strategic bombers （战略轰炸机）, missiles （导弹） and the surface of aggressive aircrafts （攻击性飞行器） are smeared with nano wave-absorbing materials, the enemy air defense radar （敌方防空 雷达） electromagnetic wave is absorbed effectively(B-2 stealth bomber surface coating contains nano material). It is good to insulation effect if the nanoparticles are added into the fuming agent （发烟剂） and it also insulate underground headquarters and other important military facilities if it is mixed with the soil. F-22 已经成为美国空军在 21 世纪的主 力制空战斗机，能携载 8 枚空 对空导弹，并具先进航空电子传感系 统， 大大提高了飞行员对周 边环境的认知能力以及在被敌方发现 之前跟踪、攻击敌机的能力。 这种战机还具有较强的地面攻击能力， 可在超音速飞行的情况下 精确投掷卫星制导炸弹，其速度更胜 其他战斗机。