Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

California Maritime Academy EPO 220 Diesel Engineering I Fuel Injection & Combustion Chamber Design Material Compiled by Robert Jackson.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "California Maritime Academy EPO 220 Diesel Engineering I Fuel Injection & Combustion Chamber Design Material Compiled by Robert Jackson."— Presentation transcript:

1 California Maritime Academy EPO 220 Diesel Engineering I Fuel Injection & Combustion Chamber Design Material Compiled by Robert Jackson

2 Diesel Engine Combustion Chambers  Combustion chambers are designed to promote air turbulence which helps atomize the fuel in preparation for combustion. open  Modern diesel engines typically utilize an open type combustion chamber.  Though not commonly used today, the following chamber designs were utilized in the past to promote complete combustion:  Turbulence Chambers  Precombustion Chambers  Energy Cell or Air Cell Chambers

3 Air Turbulence in the Combustion Chamber A- Intake Stroke; B-Compression Stroke; C-Power Stroke; Exhaust Stroke

4 Diesel Engine With Open Combustion Chamber

5 Typical Open Combustion Chamber Design

6 Hemispherical Type Open Combustion Chamber

7 M Type Open Combustion Chamber

8 Precombustion Chamber

9  The precombustion chamber is connected to the piston clearance volume by one or more passages.  This chamber may be located in the head or cylinder wall.  A precombustion chamber will hold 25 to 40 percent of the total clearance volume.  Because of the larger surface area of the combustion chamber, heat losses are increased and thermal efficiency decreases.  The precombustion chamber promotes smooth combustion and improves engine performance at low loads.

10 Mercedes Diesel With Precombustion Chamber & Glow Plug

11 Removable Injector plus Precombustion Chamber Combination (Caterpillar Tractor Co.)

12 SEMT Pielstick Variable Geometry Combustion Chamber

13 Turbulence Chamber

14  The turbulence chamber is very similar in design to the precombustion chamber. The principal difference between the two designs is the amount of chamber volume compared to the clearance volume of the main combustion chamber.  Engines utilizing turbulence chambers have very small clearance volumes.  When the piston reaches TDC virtually all of the available air has been compressed in the turbulence chamber.  The chambers are usually spherical in shape and are incorporated into either the head or cylinder.  The opening through which the air must pass becomes smaller as the piston reaches the top of the stroke, thereby increasing the velocity of the air in the chamber.

15 Waukesha Engine Turbulence Chamber

16 Lanova Energy Cell

17 The Lanova Energy Cell  The energy cell is a combination of the precombustion chamber and turbulence chamber designs.  The Lanova system has two rounded combustion spaces shaped like a figure 8.  The fuel is injected in a pencil stream, passing directly across the narrow throat of the combustion chamber so most of the fuel enters the energy cell.  Most of the fuel entering the energy cell is trapped in the small inner cell, but a small portion passes into the outer cell where it meets with a sufficient quantity of super-heated air to explode violently.

18 Combustion Sequence in the Lanova Energy Cell System The nozzle injects fuel in a pencil stream which penetrates into the energy cell. Partial combustion takes place inside the energy cell radically raising cell pressure. High pressure gasses exiting the energy cell through the venturi throat cause high turbulence levels in the main combustion chamber promoting good combustion.

19 Pintle & Hole Type Fuel Injector Nozzle

20 Operation Of Fuel Injection Nozzle


22 Angular Difference Between Needle Face & Injector Seat

23 Fuel Injectors

24 Fuel Line Pressure (lower line) & Needle Lift Diagrams a)At high load b)At low load

25 Injector Nozzle Tip for the Mak

26 Mak Fuel Injector With Oil Cooling

27 Sulzer RND-M Injector Non-Recirculating Type, Water Cooled

28 Fuel Injector Hold Down Bolt Tensioning Washer Disk Stack

29 Sulzer Fuel Injectors

30 Low Sac Volume Fuel Injection Nozzle Tip

31 Injector Tip Advances To Minimize Sac Volume

32 Port & Helix High-Pressure Fuel Pump

33 Effective Stroke of the Port & Helix Pump

34 Port & Helix High-Pressure Fuel Pump Illustration showing pump plunger, barrel, delivery valve, & control rack for adjustment of pump effective stroke

35 Exploded View of the Port & Helix Fuel Pump

36 High-Pressure Fuel Pump & Camshaft Follower For Mak 6M 322 Diesel Engine

37 High-Pressure Fuel Pump Timing

38 Balance Delivery Valve Utilized on Mak 6M 322 Diesel Engine


40 MAN B&W K98MC Slow-Speed Crosshead Diesel Engine Bore 980mm Stroke 2660mm 94 Rpm Maximum 6 to 12 Cylinders 5,720 kW Per Cylinder 12 Cylinder Engine Produces 68,640 kW (93,360 BHP)

41 MAN B&W Slow-Speed Diesel Engine High-Pressure Fuel Pump

42 MAN B&W Fuel Pumps

43 B&W Slow-Speed Diesel Engine High-Pressure Fuel Pump With Variable Injection Timing

44 B&W High-Pressure Fuel Pump


46 Fuel Pump Shock Absorber


48 The Modern Slow Speed Diesel Engine

49 Sulzer RTA84C Diesel Engine

50 Sulzer Fuel Pump Placement


52 Sulzer RTA84T High-Pressure Fuel Pump

53 RTA Camshaft, Valve Actuators, & High Pressure Fuel Pumps

54 Sulzer Valve Controlled High-Pressure Fuel Pump


56 Spill Valve Cut-away Illustration

57 Sulzer High-Pressure Fuel Pump Block 1Cover 2Cylinder 3Piston 4Slide Ring 5Viton-ring 6Conical Clamp Ring 7Spring 8Spring Plate 9Spindle 10Guide Bush 11Rubber “O” Ring 12Suction Valve 13Rubber “O” Ring 14Yoke DDelivery Valve USpill Valve SSuction Valve

58 D –Delivery Valve U -Spill Valve S -Suction Valve 10 –Connecting piece for high pressure fuel pipe 11 –Tension Bolt 30 –Cover for suction & Spill Valve 31 –Rubber Ring 32 –Relief Valve 33 –Guide Bush 34 –Push Rod 35 –Spring 36 –Locking Wire 37 –Pressing Nipple

59 Fuel Pump Effective Stroke Without Variable Injection Timing

60 Sulzer Safety Cut-Out Device

61 Constant Volume or “OTTO” Cycle

62 Dual Cycle

63 The Stroke Based Indicator Card

64 Typical Indicator Diagram (crank-angle based)


66 Indicator Card Showing Retarded Ignition Due to Low Quality Fuel

67 Example of Retarded Ignition

68 Variable Injection Timing Characteristics

69 Fuel Pump Effective Stroke With Variable Injection Timing

70 Fuel Pump Linkage

71 Port & Helix High-Pressure Fuel Pump With Variable Injection Timing

72 MAN B&W Fuel Pumps

73 MAN B&W High-Pressure Fuel Pump


75 MAN B&W Medium Speed Diesel Engine L32/40

76 Variable Injection Timing Used On L32/40 Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

77 Wartsila Split High-Pressure Fuel Pump

78 Wartsila Split Pump Operation

79 For description of pump operation see “Wartsila 64 Technical Review” pp 14

80 Typical Heavy Fuel Oil System

81 Nozzle Tip Fuel Circulation

82 Nozzle Fuel Circulation

83 Sulzer Circulating Type Injectors

84 B&W Circulating Type Fuel Injector

85 B&W Cylinder Cover Showing High-Pressure Pipes & Fuel Injectors


87 Unit Type Fuel Injector


89 Distributor Type Fuel Injector System


Download ppt "California Maritime Academy EPO 220 Diesel Engineering I Fuel Injection & Combustion Chamber Design Material Compiled by Robert Jackson."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google