The Channels and Collaterals concept interiorly-exteriorly within he body collaterals ── networks, thinner and smaller than channels, are the branches which run crisscrossly over the body channels ── the main trunks which run longitudinally and Physiological Functions The channels and collaterals are distributed all over the body, pertains to the organs interiorly and extend to the Extremities and joints exteriorly, joining the organs, tissues Into an organic whole, by which they can transport qi and Blood, keeping the functions and activities of all parts of the Body in harmony and balance relatively.
Channels Twelve Muscle Regions etc. and Collaterals Collaterals Minute Collaterals Superficial Collaterals Twelve Regular Channels Channels Eight Extra Channels Fifteen Collaterals Composition * The Twelve Regular Channels 1. Name
Yin channel (pertains to one viscera) Yang channel (pertains to one bowel) Main location Yin channel: medial aspect Yang channel: lateral aspect hand The lung channel The large intestine channel Upper-limbs Anterior line The pericardium channel The triple warmer channel Medium line The heart channel The small intestine channel Posterior line foot The spleen channel The stomach channel Lower- limbs Anterior line The liver channel The gallbladder channel Medium line The kidney channel The urinary channel Posterior line
Abdomen-chest 3 foot-yin channels 3 hand-yin channels Foot Hand head 3 foot-yang channels3 hand-yang channels 2 The Cyclical Flow of Qi in the Twelve Regular Channels The twelve regular channels are not separated with each other, they link one another by their branches. A cyclical flow of qi is maintained by the connection of the hand and foot, yin and yang, exterior and interior. Through the channels, qi and blood may travel all over the body to the organs and bowels interiorly and to the muscles and surface exteriorly.
* The Eight Extra Channels The eight extra channels are the Du, Ren, Chong, Dai, Yinwei,Yangwei, Yinqiao and Yangqiao channels. Unlike the twelve channels, none of them pertain to the viscera or bowels, and they are not exteriorly- interiorly related. Their courses are unique, and hence the name, the extra channels. Their main functions: strengthening the association between the twelve regular channels regulating the qi and blood of the regular Channels.
Acupoints Acupoints are the sites through which the qi of the organs and bowels, channels is transported to the body surface. *Basic Knowledge of Acupoints 1 The Therapeutic Properties of Acupoints Local and adjacent therapeutic properties Remote therapeutic properties (esp. the points below the elbow and knee) e.g. Zusanli (S36) treat disorders of lower limbs regulate the whole digestive system Special therapeutic properties
2 Classification of Acupoints 1) Acupoints of the fourteen channels (“regular points”) twelve regular channels and Du, Ren channel 2) Extraordinary points ── have regular names and regular locations, but are not entered in the fourteen channels Tender spots ( A-shi points ) ── have no specific names and definite locations, they are the tender spots and other sensitive spots for needling and moxibustion
Body part DistanceBone-length measurement headAnterior hairline→ posterior12 cun Chest and abdomen Tian-tu → sternocostal9 cun Sternocostal angle→the center of navel8 cun The center of navel→the upper of symphysis pubis5 cun backThe area below Dazhui→coccyx21 cun Upper limbs The end of the axillary fold→ transverse cubital crease9 cun Transverse cubital crease→transverse wrist crease12 cun Lower limbs The level of the border of symphysis pubis→medial epicondyle of femur 18 cun The lower border of the medial condyle of tibia→the tip of the medial malleolus 13 cun Prominence of the great trochanter→the middle of patella19 cun The center of patella→the tip of lateral malleolus16 cun 3 Methods of Locating Acupoints 1) Bone-length measurement unit : cun (“ 寸 ”) Stands for Bone-length measurement
2 ）自然标志取穴法：有固定标志和活动标志 3 ）手指同身寸法： a ．中指同身寸法 b ．拇指同身寸法 c ．横指同身寸法（一夫法）
2) Anatomical landmarks ① Fixed landmark e.g. five sense organs, nipple, navel, finger nail ② Movable landmark e.g. Tinggong(SJ 19) 3) Simple measurement 4) Finger measurement The length and width of the patient’s finger(s) are taken as standard for point location. ① Middle finger measurement ② Four-finger measurement ③ Thumb measurement
Homework ： 1 、 Term explanation ： Channels and collaterals, Acupoints 2 、 Simply state the Cyclical flow of Qi in the twelve regular channels 3 、 How to classify acupoints? What are the therapeutic properties of acupoints? How to locate them?