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CHAPTER 8 The flow of food: preparation. Test Your Food Safety Knowledge (True or False) 1. Ground beef should be cooked to a minimum internal temperature.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 8 The flow of food: preparation. Test Your Food Safety Knowledge (True or False) 1. Ground beef should be cooked to a minimum internal temperature."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 8 The flow of food: preparation

2 Test Your Food Safety Knowledge (True or False) 1. Ground beef should be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of F (60 0 C) for 15 seconds. 2. Fish cooked in a microwave must be heated to a minimum internal temperature of F (63 0 C). 3. Potentially hazardous food must be cooled from F to 70 0 F (57 0 C to 21 0 C) within 4 hours and from 70 0 F to 41 0 F (21 0 C to 5 0 C) or lower within the next 2 hours. 4. If potentially hazardous food is reheated for hot holding, the internal temperature must reach F (68 0 C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours. 5. It is acceptable to thaw a beef roast at room temperature. 1.Ground beef should be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of F (60 0 C) for 15 seconds. 2.Fish cooked in a microwave must be heated to a minimum internal temperature of F (63 0 C). 3.Potentially hazardous food must be cooled from F to 70 0 F (57 0 C to 21 0 C) within 4 hours and from 70 0 F to 41 0 F (21 0 C to 5 0 C) or lower within the next 2 hours. 4.If potentially hazardous food is reheated for hot holding, the internal temperature must reach F (68 0 C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours. 5.It is acceptable to thaw a beef roast at room temperature.

3 Test Your Food Safety Knowledge (True or False) False False False False False 1.Ground beef should be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of F (60 0 C) for 15 seconds. False 2.Fish cooked in a microwave must be heated to a minimum internal temperature of F (63 0 C). False 3.Potentially hazardous food must be cooled from F to 70 0 F (57 0 C to 21 0 C) within 4 hours and from 70 0 F to 41 0 F (21 0 C to 5 0 C) or lower within the next 2 hours. False 4.If potentially hazardous food is reheated for hot holding, the internal temperature must reach F (68 0 C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours. False 5.It is acceptable to thaw a beef roast at room temperature. False

4 7-4 Slacking Process of gradually thawing frozen food in preparation for deep- frying. Minimum Internal Temperature The required minimum temperature the internal portion of food must reach to sufficiently reduce the number of microorganisms that might be present. This temperature is specific to the type of food being cooked. Food must reach and hold its required internal temperature for a specific amount of time.

5 The Four Acceptable Methods for Thawing Food 8-2 In a refrigerator, at 41  F (5  C) or lower Submerged under running potable water, at a temperature of 70  F (21  C) or lower In a microwave oven, if the food will be cooked immediately after thawing As part of the cooking process The Four Acceptable Methods for Thawing Food In a refrigerator, at 41  F (5  C) or lower Submerged under running potable water, at a temperature of 70  F (21  C) or lower In a microwave oven, if the food will be cooked immediately after thawing As part of the cooking process

6 8-3 When preparing raw meat, fish, and poultry, foodhandlers should: Wash their hands properly Use clean and sanitized work areas, equipment, and utensils Remove only as much product from storage as necessary Store prepared meat, or cook it as quickly as possible  Preparing Raw Meat, Fish, and Poultry When preparing raw meat, fish, and poultry, foodhandlers should: Wash their hands properly Use clean and sanitized work areas, equipment, and utensils Remove only as much product from storage as necessary Store prepared meat, or cook it as quickly as possible

7 8-4 Only use meat and poultry that was safely handled prior to use Do not use ingredients past their use-by dates Refrigerate ingredients until ready for use Chill utensils prior to using them Prepare the salads in small batches When preparing salads containing potentially hazardous ingredients: Preparing Salads Containing Potentially Hazardous Food When preparing salads containing potentially hazardous ingredients: Only use meat and poultry that was safely handled prior to use Do not use ingredients until ready for use Chill utensils prior to using them Preparing the salads in small batches

8 Prepping Specific Food When prepping produce: – Make sure produce does not touch surfaces exposed to raw meat and poultry – Refrigerate and hold sliced melons, cut tomatoes, and cut leafy greens at 41°F (5°C) or lower – Do not serve raw seed sprouts if you primarily serve high-risk populations

9 When prepping produce: – Wash it thoroughly under running water before: Cutting Cooking Combining with other ingredients – Produce can be washed in water containing ozone to sanitize it Check with your local regulatory authority Prepping Specific Food

10 8-5 When preparing eggs and egg mixtures: Handle pooled eggs (if allowed) with special care Clean and sanitize equipment and utensils used to prepare eggs Use pasteurized shell eggs or egg products when: Serving high-risk populations Preparing dishes requiring little or no cooking Preparing Eggs and Egg Mixtures When preparing eggs and egg mixtures Handle pooled eggs (if allowed) with special care Clean and sanitize equipment and utensils used to prepare eggs Use pasteurized shell eggs or egg products when : Serving high-risk populations Preparing dishes requiring little or no cooking.

11 8-6 Consider making batter with pasteurized eggs Prepare batter in small batches Throw out unused batter after each shift When battering food: When breading food: Refrigerate it as quickly as possible if it will be used later Throw out unused breading after each shift Preparing Batter and Breading When battering food: Consider making batter with pasteurized eggs Prepare batter in small batches Throw out unused batter after each shift When breading food: Refrigerate it as quickly as possible if it will be used later Throw out unused breading after each shift

12 8-7 When preparing produce: Do not allow contact with surfaces exposed to raw meat or poultry Wash it thoroughly under running water before cutting, cooking, or combining with other ingredients Do not add sulfites Refrigerate and hold cut melons at 41 0 F (5 0 C) or lower since they are potentially hazardous food. If your establishment primarily serves high-risk populations, do not serve raw seed sprouts. Photo courtesy of Tony Soluri and Charlie Trotter Preparing Fruit and Vegetables When preparing produce: Do not allow contact with surfaces exposed to raw meat or poultry Wash it thoroughly under running water before cutting, cooking, or combining with other ingredients Do not add sulfites Refrigerate and hold cut melons at 41F or lower since they are potentially hazardous food. If your establishment primarily serves high-risk populations, do not serve raw seed sprouts.

13 When soaking or storing produce in standing water or an ice-water slurry, do not mix different items or multiple batches. Soaking or Storing Produce in Water

14 If juice is prepared and packaged on site for sale at a later time, a variance from the regulatory agency is needed. Fresh Juice

15 The juice must also be treated according to an approved HACCP plan OR label with the following phrase: Warning: this product has not been pasteurized and therefore may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly and people with weakened immune systems. Fresh Juice

16 8-8 Use a sanitized container and scoop Store scoops outside of the ice machine in a sanitary location Do not use a glass as a scoop Do not let hands come in contact with ice When scooping ice from an ice machine: Ice When scooping ice from an ice machine Use a sanitized container and scoop Store outside of the ice machine in a sanitary location Do not use a glass as a scoop Do not let hands come in contact with ice Ice

17 A variance is required whenever an establishment: – Smokes food or uses food additives as a method of food preservation. – Cures food. – Custom-processes animals for personal use. – Packages food using a reduced-oxygen packaging method. – Serves raw or undercooked fish, eggs, shellfish or meat (excluding steaks). – Sprouts seeds or beans. – Using food additives or components to preserve or alter food so it no longer needs time and temperature control for safety – Packaging fresh juice on-site for sale at a later time, unless the juice has a warning label Preparation Practices That Require a Variance

18 You need a variance if prepping food in these ways: continued – Packaging food using a reduced- oxygen packaging (ROP) method – Sprouting seeds or beans – Offering live, molluscan shellfish from a display tank – Custom-processing animals for personal use (i.e. dressing a deer)

19 8-9 Reach the required minimum internal temperature Hold that temperature for a specific amount of time When cooking potentially hazardous food, the internal portion must: Cooking Food Cooking Food When cooking potentially hazardous food, the internal portion must: Reach the required minimum internal temperature Hold that temperature for a specific amount of time.

20 Minimum internal cooking temperature: 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds – Poultry—whole or ground chicken, turkey, or duck – Stuffing made with fish, meat, or poultry – Stuffed meat, seafood, poultry, or pasta – Dishes that include previously cooked, TCS ingredients 6-10 Cooking Requirements for Specific Food

21 8-10 Poultry (whole or ground duck, chicken, turkey) Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 165 ° F (74 ° C) for 15 seconds Cooking Poultry Poultry (whole or ground duck, chicken, turkey) Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 165°F for 15 seconds

22 8-11 Stuffing/Stuffed Meats Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 165 ° F (74 ° C) for 15 seconds Cooking Stuffing and Stuffed Meat Stuffing/Stuffed Meats Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 165°F for 15 seconds

23 8-12 Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 165 ° F (74 ° C) for 15 seconds When including previously cooked, potentially hazardous ingredients in the dish: When including raw potentially hazardous ingredients in the dish: Cook raw ingredients to their required minimum internal temperatures Dishes That Include Potentially Hazardous Ingredients When including previously cooked, potentially hazardous ingredients in the dish: Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 165°F for 15 seconds When including raw potentially hazardous ingredients in the dish: Cook raw ingredients to their required minimum internal temperatures

24 Cooking Requirements for Specific Food Minimum internal cooking temperature: 155°F (68°C) for 15 seconds – Ground meat—beef, pork, and other meat – Mechanically tenderized meat – Injected meat—including brined ham and flavor- injected roasts – Ground seafood—including chopped or minced seafood – Eggs that will be hot-held for service

25 8-13 Ground Meats (ground beef, pork, other meat or fish) Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 155 ° F (68 ° C) for 15 seconds Photo courtesy of Cooper-Atkins Corporation Cooking Ground Meats Ground Meats (ground beef, pork, other meat or fish) Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 155°F for 15 seconds

26 8-14 Injected Meats (including brined ham and flavor-injected roasts) Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 155 ° F (68 ° C) for fifteen seconds Cooking Injected Meats Injected Meats (including brined ham and flavor-injected roasts) Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 155°F for 15 seconds

27 Minimum internal cooking temperature: 145°F (63°C) for 15 seconds – Seafood—including fish, shellfish, and crustaceans – Steaks/chops of pork, beef, veal, and lamb – Commercially raised game – Shell eggs that will be served immediately 6-12 Cooking Requirements for Specific Food

28 8-15 Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: Steaks/Chops: 145 ° F (63 ° C) for 15 seconds Roasts: 145 ° F (63 ° C) for 4 minutes Pork, Beef, Veal, Lamb Cooking Pork, Beef, Veal, and Lamb Pork, Beef, Veal, Lamb Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: Steaks/Chops: 145°F for 15 seconds Roasts: 145°F for 4 minutes

29 8-16 Fish Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 145˚F (63˚C) for 15 seconds Cooking Fish Fish Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 145°F for 15 seconds

30 8-17 Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 145˚F (63˚C) for 15 seconds Shell Eggs For Immediate Service Shell Eggs That Will Be Hot-Held Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 155 ° F (68 ° C) for 15 seconds Cooking Shell Eggs Shell Eggs For Immediate Service Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 145°F for 15 seconds Shell Eggs That Will Be Hot-Held Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 155°F for 15 seconds

31 8-18 Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 135 ° F (57 ° C) Fruit or Vegetables That Will Be Hot-Held for Service Cooking Fruit or Vegetables Fruit or Vegetables that will be hot-held for Service Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 135°F

32 8-19 Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 135 ° F (57 ° C) for 15 seconds Commercially Processed, Ready-to-Eat Food That Will Be Hot-held for Service (Includes cheese sticks, deep-fried vegetables, chicken wings, etc.) Cooking Commercially Processed, Ready-To-Eat Food Commercially Processed, Ready-To-Eat Food That Will Be Hot-held for Service (includes cheese sticks, deep-fried vegetables, chicken wings, etc) Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 135°F for 15 seconds

33 Partial Cooking If partially cooking meat, seafood, poultry, or eggs or dishes containing these items: 1.Never cook the food longer than 60 minutes during initial cooking 2.Cool the food immediately after initial cooking 3.Freeze or refrigerate the food after cooling it 4.Heat the food to at least 165˚F (74˚C) before selling or serving it 5.Cool the food if it will not be served immediately or held for service.

34 If your menu includes raw or undercooked TCS items, you must: Note it on the menu next to the items o Asterisk the item o Place a footnote at the menu bottom indicating the item is raw, undercooked, or contains raw or undercooked ingredients Advise customers who order this food of the increased risk of foodborne illness o Post a notice in the menu o Provide this information using brochures, table tents, or signs 6-16 Consumer Advisories

35 Children’s Menus Children should not be offered these items raw or undercooked: – Meat – Poultry – Seafood – Eggs

36 Roasts can be reheated to these alternative temperatures: TemperatureTime 130˚F (54˚C) 112 minutes 131˚F (55˚C) 89 minutes 133˚F (56˚C)56 minutes 135˚F (57˚C) 36 minutes 136˚F (58˚C) 28 minutes 138˚F (59˚C) 18 minutes 140˚F (60˚C) 12 minutes 142˚F (61˚C)8 minutes 144˚F (62˚C) 5 minutes 145˚F (63˚C)4 minutes Reheating Roasts

37 8-20 Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 165˚F (74˚C) Potentially Hazardous Food Cooked In A Microwave (eggs, poultry, fish, and meat) Cooking Potentially Hazardous Food in a Microwave Potentially Hazardous Food Cooked In A Microwave (eggs, poultry, fish, and meat) Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 165°F

38 8-21 Cover it to prevent surface from drying out Rotate/stir it halfway through cooking process Let it stand for 2 minutes after cooking Check temperature in several places When cooking food in a microwave: When cooking food in a microwave: Cover it to prevent surface from drying out Rotate/stir it halfway through cooking process Let it stand for 2 minutes after cooking Check temperature in several places

39 What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for each of these items? Ahi tuna steak 2. Green beans that will be hot-held 3. Ground pork 4. Lamb chops 5. Shell eggs for immediate service 6. Duck 7. Precooked frozen hot wings 8. Steak 9. Chicken enchiladas prepared with previously cooked chicken 10. Pork loin injected with marinade

40 What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for each of these items? Ahi tuna steak F. (63 0 C) 2. Green beans that will be hot-held F. (57 0 C) 3. Ground pork F. (68 0 C) 4. Lamb chops F. (63 0 C) 5. Shell eggs for immediate service F. (63 0 C) 6. Duck F. (74 0 C) 7. Precooked frozen hot wings F (57 0 C) 8. Steak F (63 0 C) 9. Chicken enchiladas prepared with previously cooked chicken F (63 0 C) 10. Pork loin injected with marinade F (68 0 C)

41 Which of the following statements is true about microwave cooking? Leave food uncovered so that excess moisture can escape. 2. Cooked food should be left to stand for 30 seconds. 3. Fish cooked in a microwave should be heated to 145  F (63  C). 4. Food should be stirred halfway through the cooking process. 5. Food should be rotated right before it is removed from the microwave.

42 Which of the following statements is true about microwave cooking? Leave food uncovered so that excess moisture can escape. 2. Cooked food should be left to stand for 30 seconds. 3. Fish cooked in a microwave should be heated to 145  F (63  C). 4. Food should be stirred halfway through the cooking process. 5. Food should be rotated right before it is removed from the microwave. Statement 4 is the only one that is true.

43 ° F to 70 ° F (57 ° C to 21 ° C) within 2 hours and then from 70 ° F to 41 ° F (21 ° C to 5 ° C) or lower in an additional 4 hours Cool potentially hazardous food from: Icon courtesy of the International Association for Food Protection Cooling Requirements 135°F to 70°F within 2 hours and then from 70°F to 41°F or lower in an additional 4 hours

44 8-25 Thickness or density of the food The container in which the food is stored Several factors affect how quickly food will cool, including: Cooling Food Several factors affect how quickly food will cool, including: Thickness or density of the food The container in which the food is stored

45 8-26 Safe methods for cooling food include: Reducing the quantity or size of the food Using ice-water baths Using a blast chiller Stirring the food Methods for Cooling Food Safe methods for cooling food include: Reducing the quality or size of the food Using ice-water baths Using a blast chiller Stirring the food

46 8-27 Placing it in shallow stainless steel pans Placing pans on top shelves in refrigeration units Positioning pans so air circulates around them Monitoring it to ensure cooling to 41 ° F (5 ° C) or lower in 4 hours Once food has cooled to 70 ° F (21 ° C), store it by: Storing Cooked Food Once food has cooled to 72°F, store it by: Placing it in shallow stainless steel pans Placing pans on top shelves in refrigeration units Positioning pans so air circulates around them Monitoring it to ensure cooling to 41°F or lower in 4 hours

47 Is the soup safe to serve? A stockpot of soup was held for service at 135  F (57  C). 2. The stockpot was placed into an ice-water bath at 8:00 A.M. 3. At 10:00 A.M., the soup was 90  F (32  C). 4. At 11:00 A.M., the soup was 70  F (21  C). 5. The soup was poured into shallow pans. 6. The pans were placed in the walk-in on the top shelf.

48 Is the soup safe to serve? A stockpot of soup was held for service at 135  F (57  C). 2. The stockpot was placed into an ice-water bath at 8:00 A.M. 3. At 10:00 A.M., the soup was 90  F (32  C). 4. At 11:00 A.M., the soup was 70  F (21  C). 5. The soup was poured into shallow pans. 6. The pans were placed in the walk-in on the top shelf. The soup is not safe to serve. It should have been cooled from F (57 0 C) to 70 0 F (21 0 C) within two hours, but it actually took the soup three hours to reach this temperature.

49 ° F (74 ° C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours When reheating food for hot-holding, heat it to an internal temperature of: Reheating Potentially Hazardous Food When reheating food for hot-holding, heat it to an internal temperature of: 165°F for 15 seconds within 2 hours

50 Food reheated for immediate service: Can be reheated to any temperature if it was cooked and cooled correctly Food reheated for hot-holding: Must be reheated to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds within two hours Reheat commercially processed and packaged ready-to-eat food to an internal temperature of at least 135°F (57°C) 6-20

51 A.4, 2 B.2, 4 C.3, 2 D.2, Beef stew must be cooled from F to 70 0 F (57 0 C to 21 0 C) within ___ hours and from 70 0 F to 41 0 F (21 0 C to 5 0 C) or lower in the next ___ hours.

52 A.4, 2 B.2, 4 C.3, 2 D.2, Beef stew must be cooled from F to 70 0 F (57 0 C to 21 0 C) within ___ hours and from 70 0 F to 41 0 F (21 0 C to 5 0 C) or lower in the next ___ hours.

53 A.Thawing it by submerging it under running potable water at 70 0 F (21 0 C) or lower. B.Thawing it in the microwave and cooking it immediately afterward. C.Thawing it at room temperature. D.Thawing it in the refrigerator overnight Which is not a safe method for thawing frozen food?

54 A.Thawing it by submerging it under running potable water at 70 0 F (21 0 C) or lower. B.Thawing it in the microwave and cooking it immediately afterward. C.Thawing it at room temperature. D.Thawing it in the refrigerator overnight Which is not a safe method for thawing frozen food?

55 A F (57 0 C) for fifteen seconds. B F (63 0 C) for fifteen seconds. C F (68 0 C) for fifteen seconds. D F (74 0 C) for fifteen seconds Stuffed pork chops must be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of

56 A F (57 0 C) for fifteen seconds. B F (63 0 C) for fifteen seconds. C F (68 0 C) for fifteen seconds. D F (74 0 C) for fifteen seconds Stuffed pork chops must be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of

57 A F (57 0 C) for fifteen seconds within 2 hours. B F (63 0 C) for fifteen seconds within 2 hours. C F (68 0 C) for fifteen seconds within 2 hours. D F (74 0 C) for fifteen seconds within 2 hours When reheating potentially hazardous food for hot holding, reheat the food to

58 A F (57 0 C) for fifteen seconds within 2 hours. B F (63 0 C) for fifteen seconds within 2 hours. C F (68 0 C) for fifteen seconds within 2 hours. D F (74 0 C) for fifteen seconds within 2 hours When reheating potentially hazardous food for hot holding, reheat the food to

59 A F (60 0 C). B F (63 0 C). C F (68 0 C). D F (74 0 C) Meat, poultry and fish cooked in a microwave must be heated to at least

60 A F (60 0 C). B F (63 0 C). C F (68 0 C). D F (74 0 C) Meat, poultry and fish cooked in a microwave must be heated to at least

61 A F (60 0 C) for fifteen seconds. B F (63 0 C) for fifteen seconds. C F (68 0 C) for fifteen seconds. D F (74 0 C) for fifteen seconds Eggs that will be cooked and hot held for later service must be cooked to an internal temperature of

62 A F (60 0 C) for fifteen seconds. B F (63 0 C) for fifteen seconds. C F (68 0 C) for fifteen seconds. D F (74 0 C) for fifteen seconds Eggs that will be cooked and hot held for later service must be cooked to an internal temperature of

63 A.Preparing food in small batches. B.Throwing out unused batter or breading after each shift. C.Preparing raw meat at a different time than fresh produce. D.Cleaning and sanitizing pooled egg containers between batches All of these practices can help prevent cross-contamination during food preparation except

64 A.Preparing food in small batches. B.Throwing out unused batter or breading after each shift. C.Preparing raw meat at a different time than fresh produce. D.Cleaning and sanitizing pooled egg containers between batches All of these practices can help prevent cross-contamination during food preparation except

65 A.Allow the stockpot to cool at room temperature. B.Put the hot stockpot into the walk-in refrigerator to cool. C.Divide the clam chowder into smaller containers and place them in a n ice- water bath. D.Put the hot stockpot into the walk-in freezer to cool What is the proper way to cool a large stockpot of clam chowder?

66 A.Allow the stockpot to cool at room temperature. B.Put the hot stockpot into the walk-in refrigerator to cool. C.Divide the clam chowder into smaller containers and place them in an ice-water bath. D.Put the hot stockpot into the walk-in freezer to cool What is the proper way to cool a large stockpot of clam chowder?

67 A.Thawing food in a refrigerator at 41 0 F (5 0 C). B.Chilling all ingredients used to make tuna salad. C.Leaving food in the refrigerator until all ingredients are ready to be mixed. D.Thawing steaks in a microwave and promptly refrigerating them for later use All of these practices can help prevent time and temperature abuse except

68 A.Thawing food in a refrigerator at 41 0 F (5 0 C). B.Chilling all ingredients used to make tuna salad. C.Leaving food in the refrigerator until all ingredients are ready to be mixed. D.Thawing steaks in a microwave and promptly refrigerating them for later use All of these practices can help prevent time and temperature abuse except

69 A.Hamburger cooked to an internal temperature of F (57 0 C) for 15 seconds. B.Pork chops cooked to an internal temperature of F (63 0 C) for 15 seconds. C.Whole turkey cooked to an internal temperature of F (68 0 C) for 15 seconds. D.Fish cooked to an internal temperature of F (57 0 C) for 15 seconds Which food item has been safely cooked?

70 A.Hamburger cooked to an internal temperature of F (57 0 C) for 15 seconds. B.Pork chops cooked to an internal temperature of F (63 0 C) for 15 seconds. C.Whole turkey cooked to an internal temperature of F (68 0 C) for 15 seconds. D.Fish cooked to an internal temperature of F (57 0 C) for 15 seconds Which food item has been safely cooked?


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