Presentation on theme: "The Flow of Food: Preparation"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Flow of Food: Preparation Instructor NotesOnce food has been received and stored safely, it is essential that it be prepared, cooked, cooled, and reheated with just as much care. It is at these points in the flow of food that the risk of cross-contamination and time-temperature abuse are the greatest.
2 Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge True or False: Ground beef should be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 140°F (60°C) for fifteen secondsTrue or False: Fish cooked in a microwave must be heated to a minimum internal temperature of 145°F (63°C)True or False: Potentially hazardous food must be cooled from 135°F to 70°F (57°C to 21°C) within four hours and from 70°F to 41°F (21°C to 5°C) or lower within the next two hoursTrue or False: If potentially hazardous food is reheated for hot holding, the internal temperature must reach 155°F (68°C) for fifteen seconds within two hoursTrue or False: It is acceptable to thaw a beef roast at room temperatureInstructor NotesAnswers:False8-2
3 Thawing Food The Four Acceptable Methods for Thawing Food In a refrigerator, at 41F (5C) or lowerSubmerged under running potable water, at a temperature of 70F (21C) or lowerInstructor NotesFreezing does not kill microorganisms. When frozen food is thawed and exposed to the temperature danger zone, any foodborne microorganisms present will begin to grow. To prevent this growth, food should never be thawed at room temperature. The four acceptable methods for thawing food are presented in the slide.When thawing food under running water, the water flow must be strong enough to wash loose food particles into the overflow drain.When thawing food as part of the cooking process, the product must meet the required minimum internal temperature.In a microwave oven, if the food will be cooked immediately after thawingAs part of the cooking process
4 Preparing Specific Food: Salads Containing PHF’s When preparing salads containing potentially hazardous ingredients:Make sure leftover ingredients (i.e., pasta, chicken, potatoes) have been handled safely by ensuring they were:Cooked, held, and cooled properlyStored for less than 7 daysPrepare product in small batchesRefrigerate ingredients until the point they are neededChill all ingredients and utensils prior to using themInstructor NotesPHF stands for potentially hazardous food.Chicken, tuna, egg, pasta, and potato salads all have been involved in foodborne-illness outbreaks. Since these salads are not typically cooked after preparation, there is no chance to eliminate microorganisms that may have been introduced during preparation.Ingredients should be left in refrigeration until the point that they will be mixed together.Consider chilling all ingredients and utensils before using them to make the salad. For example, tuna, mayonnaise, and mixing bowls can be chilled before making tuna salad.Prepare the salads in small batches, so large amounts do not sit out at room temperature for long periods of time.
5 Preparing Specific Food: Eggs and Egg Mixtures When preparing eggs and egg mixtures:Handle pooled eggs (if allowed) with care:Cook promptly after mixing or store at 41°F (5°C) or lowerClean and sanitize containers between batchesUse pasteurized shell eggs or egg products when preparing dishes requiring little or no cooking (i.e., hollandaise sauce)Promptly clean and sanitize equipment and utensils used to prepare eggsInstructor NotesAll untreated eggs are considered potentially hazardous food because they are able to support the rapid growth of microorganisms.Pooled eggs are eggs that are cracked open and combined into a common container. They must be handled with care because bacteria in one egg can spread to the rest.Egg dishes requiring little or no cooking include: mayonnaise, eggnog, Caesar salad dressing, and hollandaise sauce.
6 Preparing Specific Food: Eggs and Egg Mixtures When preparing eggs for high risk populations:Pasteurized eggs or egg products must be used when dishes will be served raw or undercookedUnpasteurized shell eggs may be used if the dish will be cooked all the way through (i.e., omelets, cakes)If shell eggs will be pooled for a recipe they must be pasteurizedInstructor NotesOperations that serve high risk populations, such as hospitals and nursing homes, must take special care when using eggs.
7 Preparing Specific Food: Produce When preparing produce:Wash it thoroughly under running water before cutting, cooking, or combining with other ingredientsUse water slightly warmer than the temperature of the producePull leafy greens apart and rinse thoroughlyClean and sanitize surfaces used to prepare producePhoto courtesy of Tony Soluri and Charlie Trotter
8 Preparing Specific Food: Produce When preparing produce: continuedPrevent contact with surfaces exposed to raw meat or poultryPrepare produce away from raw meat, poultry, eggs, and cooked and ready-to-eat foodClean and sanitize the workspace and all utensils used during preparationPhoto courtesy of Tony Soluri and Charlie Trotter
9 Preparing Specific Food: Produce When preparing produce: continuedWhen soaking or storing produce in standing water or an ice water slurry do not mix:Different itemsMultiple batches of the same itemRefrigerate and hold cut melons at 41°F (5°C) or lowerDo not add sulfitesDo not serve raw seed sprouts to high risk populationsInstructor NotesWhen soaking or storing produce in standing water or an ice water slurry, pathogens from contaminated produce can contaminate the water and/or ice. If different batches of produce or multiple batches of the same item are soaked or stored in the same water they can become contaminated as well.Sulfites are preservatives designed to maintain freshness.
10 Preparing Specific Food: Fresh Juice To package fresh juice for later sale:A variance is required from the regulatory agencyThe juice must be treated (e.g., pasteurized) according to an approved HACCP planAs an alternative, the juice must contain a warning label indicating the product has not been pasteurized and may contain harmful bacteria.Instructor NotesIf fresh juice will be served to a high-risk population, federal public health officials require the establishment to treat the juice to eliminate pathogens that can cause foodborne illness.Discuss the How This Relates To Me on page 8-7 in ServSafe Essentials.
11 Cooking FoodWhen cooking potentially hazardous food, the internal portion must:Reach the required minimum internal temperatureHold that temperature for a specific amount of timeInstructor NotesThe only way to reduce microorganisms in food to safe levels is to cook it to the required minimum internal temperature. This temperature varies from product to product. Minimum standards have been developed for most food. Check local requirements.The only way to be certain food has reached the required minimum internal cooking temperature is to check it using a calibrated thermometer with a suitably sized probe. The temperature should be checked in the thickest part of the food, and at least two readings should be taken in different locations.It is important to remember that potentially hazardous food—such as meat, eggs, and seafood—should be cooked to the minimum internal temperatures specified in these slides, unless otherwise ordered by the customer. Potentially hazardous items that have not been cooked to these temperatures, such as over-easy eggs, raw oysters, and rare hamburgers, generally do not pose a risk for foodborne illness to the healthy customer. However, if a customer is from a high-risk population, consuming raw or undercooked, potentially hazardous food could significantly increase their risk of foodborne illness. These customers should be advised of this risk when they order potentially hazardous food (or an ingredient) that is raw or not fully cooked.They may want to consult with a physician before regularly consuming these types of food.
12 Cooking PoultryPoultry: (including whole or ground chicken, turkey, and duck)Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature:165°F (74°C) for 15 secondsInstructor NotesPoultry has more types and higher counts of microorganisms than other meat because of the way it is processed. Therefore, it should be cooked more thoroughly.
13 Cooking Stuffing Stuffing made with potentially hazardous ingredients Stuffed meat, fish, poultry, and pastaMinimum Internal Cooking Temperature:165°F (74°C) for 15 secondsInstructor NotesStuffing can be a potentially hazardous food when it is made with eggs, oysters, or other potentially hazardous ingredients.With stuffed meat and other products, the stuffing can be a hazard because it acts as insulation preventing heat from reaching the center of the product. When cooking stuffed meat, fish, poultry, and pasta, always verify that both the stuffing, and the product reach the required temperature.Stuffing should be cooked separately, particularly when cooking whole, large birds or large cuts of meat. Smaller cuts of meat, such as pork tenderloins or veal chops, may be stuffed before cooking as long as both the meat and stuffing reach the required temperature.
14 Cooking Dishes with Potentially Hazardous Ingredients When including previously cooked, potentially hazardous ingredients in the dish:Cook ingredients to a minimum internal temperature of:165°F (74°C) for 15 secondsWhen including raw potentially hazardous ingredients in the dish:Cook raw ingredients to their required minimum internal temperatureInstructor NotesWhen cooking dishes that include previously cooked, potentially hazardous ingredients, these ingredients should be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) for fifteen seconds. For example, when adding cooked ground beef to a red sauce, the beef within the dish must be reheated to 165F (74C) for fifteen seconds within 2 hours.When cooking dishes that include raw, potentially hazardous ingredients, these ingredients must be cooked to their required minimum internal temperatures. For example, when cooking jambalaya you must ensure that the raw shrimp reaches 145°F (63°C) for fifteen seconds.
15 Cooking Potentially Hazardous Food in a Microwave Potentially hazardous food cooked in a microwave: (eggs, poultry, fish, and meat)Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature:165°F (74°C)
16 Cooking Potentially Hazardous Food in a Microwave When cooking food in a microwave:Cover it to prevent the surface from drying outRotate or stir it halfway through the cooking process to distribute the heat more evenlyLet it stand for at least 2 minutes after cooking to let the product temperature equalizeCheck the temperature in several places to ensure that it is cooked through
17 Photo courtesy of Cooper-Atkins Corporation Cooking Ground MeatGround Meat (including beef, pork, other meat)Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature:155°F (68°C) for 15 secondsPhoto courtesy of Cooper-Atkins CorporationInstructor NotesMost whole-muscle cuts of meat are likely to have microorganisms only on the surface. When meat is ground, such as for hamburger or sausage, microorganisms on the surface are mixed throughout the product.As an alternative, ground meat may also be cooked to the following internal temperatures:145°F (63°C) for 3 minutes150°F (66°C) for 1 minute155°F (68°C) for 15 seconds158°F (70°C) for <1 second
18 Cooking Injected MeatInjected Meat (including brined ham and flavor-injected roasts)Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature:155°F (68°C) for 15 secondsInstructor NotesWhen meat is injected, foodborne microorganisms on the surface can be carried into the interior.As an alternative, injected meat may also be cooked to the following internal temperatures:145°F (63°C) for 3 minutes150°F (66°C) for 1 minute155°F (68°C) for 15 seconds158°F (70°C) for <1 second
19 Cooking Pork, Beef, Veal and Lamb Pork, Beef, Veal, LambMinimum Internal Cooking Temperature:Steaks/Chops:145°F (63°C) for 15 secondsRoasts:145°F (63°C) for 4 minutesInstructor NotesDepending upon the type of roast and the oven used, roasts may be cooked to the following alternative internal temperatures:130°F (54°C) for 112 minutes131°F (55°C) for 89 minutes133°F (56°C) for 56 minutes135°F (57°C) for 36 minutes136°F (58°C) for 28 minutes138°F (59°C) for 18 minutes140°F (60°C) for 12 minutes142°F (61°C) for 8 minutes144°F (62°C) for 5 minutes145°F (63°C) for 4 minutes
20 Cooking Fish Fish Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature: 145°F (63°C) for 15 secondsGround, chopped, minced fish155°F (68°C) for 15 secondsInstructor NotesWhile most whole-muscle cuts of fish are likely to have microorganisms only on their surface, grinding or chopping fish mixes any surface microorganisms throughout the product.
21 Cooking Eggs Eggs for immediate service Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature:145°F (63°C) for 15 secondsEggs that will be hot-held155°F (68°C) for 15 secondsInstructor NotesWhen cooking eggs, remove from storage only as many eggs as you need for immediate use.Never stack egg trays (flats) near the grill or stove.Eggs that will be held for any length of time must be cooked to a higher temperature.
22 Cooking Fruit or Vegetables Fruit or vegetables that will be hot-held for serviceMinimum Internal Cooking Temperature:135°F (57°C)Instructor NotesCooked vegetables must never be held at room temperature.
23 Cooking Commercially Processed, Ready-to-Eat Food Commercially processed, ready-to-eat food that will be hot-held for service (cheese sticks, fried vegetables, chicken wings, etc.)Minimum Internal Cooking Temperature:135°F (57°C) for 15 secondsInstructor NotesDiscuss the How This Relates To Me on page 8-14 in ServSafe Essentials.
24 Apply Your Knowledge: What’s the Temperature? What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for each of these items?1. Salmon steak2. Green beans that will be hot held3. Ground pork4. Lamb chops5. Eggs for immediate service6. Duck7. Precooked frozen hot wings8. Steak9. Chicken enchiladas prepared with previously cooked chicken10. Pork loin injected with marinadeInstructor NotesAnswers:1. Salmon steak: 145F (68C)2. Green beans that will be hot held: 135F (57C)3. Ground pork: 155F (68C)4. Lamb chops: 145F (63C)5. Eggs for immediate service: 145F (63C)6. Duck: 165F (74C)7. Precooked frozen hot wings: 135F (57C)8. Steak: 145F (63C)9. Chicken enchiladas prepared with previously cooked chicken: 165F (74C)10. Injected pork loin: 155F (68C)8-24
25 Cooling Food: Requirements Cool potentially hazardous food from:135°F to 70°F (57°C to 21°C) within 2 hoursAnd then from70°F to 41°F (21°C to 5°C) or lower in the next 4 hoursInstructor NotesKeep in mind this is a two-stage process (two hours plus four hours). Microorganisms grow well in the temperature danger zone. However, they grow much faster at temperatures between 125°F and 70°F (52°C and 21°C). Food must pass through this temperature range quickly to minimize this growth. Because food is cooled to 70°F (21°C) within two hours, it passes quickly and safely through the most dangerous part of the temperature danger zone.If food has not reached 70°F (21°C) within two hours, it must be thrown out or reheated and then cooled again.Discuss the How This Relates To Me on page 8-15 in ServSafe Essentials.Icon courtesy of the International Association for Food Protection
26 Cooling Food: Prior to Cooling Before cooling food, start by reducing its size:Cut larger items into smaller piecesDivide large containers of food into smaller containers or shallow pans
27 Cooling Food: Methods for Cooling Food Safe methods for cooling food:Place it in an ice-water bathPlace containers into a sink or large pot filled with ice waterStir the food frequentlyStir it with an ice paddleFood cools faster when placed in an ice-water bath and stirred with an ice paddleInstructor NotesAfter food is divided into smaller quantities, it can be cooled in an ice-water bath by placing the pots or pans into a sink or large pot filled with ice water. Stir the food frequently to cool it faster and more evenly.Plastic paddles are available that can be filled with ice or with water and then frozen. Food stirred with these paddles will cool quickly.
28 Cooling Food: Methods for Cooling Food Safe methods for cooling food: continuedPlace it in a blast chillerBlast chillers blast cold air across food at high speeds to remove heatThey are useful for cooling large itemsPlace it in a tumble chillerTumble chillers tumble bags of hot food in cold waterThey are useful for cooling thick foodInstructor NotesBlast chillers are useful for chilling large food items such as roasts.Tumble chillers work well on thick food such as mashed potatoes.
29 Cooling Food: Methods for Cooling Food Safe methods for cooling food: continuedAdd ice or cold water as an ingredientThe recipe is prepared with less water than requiredCold water or ice is then added later to cool the product and provide the remaining waterUse a steam-jacketed kettle (if properly equipped)Run cold water through the jacket to cool the foodInstructor NotesFood can be cooled by adding ice or water as an ingredient. This works for soups, stews, and other recipes that call for water as an ingredient.
30 Reheating Potentially Hazardous Food Food reheated for immediate service:Can be served at any temperature if it was properly cooked and cooledPotentially hazardous food reheated for hot holding:Must be reheated to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds within 2 hoursDiscard it if it has not reached this temperature within 2 hoursInstructor NotesRemind participants that the Take It Back section in ServSafe Essentials (page 8-26) can be used to teach important concepts from section 8 to their employees.