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Chapter 7 The Flow of Food: Preparation

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1 Chapter 7 The Flow of Food: Preparation

2 General Preparation Practices
When prepping food: Make sure workstations, cutting boards, and utensils are clean and sanitized Prep food in small batches Return prepped food to the cooler or cook it as quickly as possible Instructor Notes Remove from the cooler only as much food as you can prep in a short period of time. Also prep food in small batches. This keeps ingredients from sitting out for long periods of time. 7-2

3 Thawing Four Methods for Thawing Food
Thaw food in a cooler, at a product temperature of 41°F or lower Under cold running water Thaw food in a microwave, only if cooked immediately after thawing Thaw as part of the cooking process Instructor Notes Freezing does not kill pathogens. When frozen food is thawed and exposed to the temperature danger zone, any pathogens in the food will begin to grow. To reduce this growth, food should never be thawed at room temperature. The four acceptable methods for thawing food are presented in the slide. 7-3

4 Prepping Specific Food
When prepping produce: Make sure produce does not touch surfaces exposed to raw meat and poultry Refrigerate and hold sliced melons and cut tomatoes at 41°F or lower 7-4

5 Prepping Specific Food
When prepping produce: continued Wash it thoroughly under running water Use water a little warmer than the produce Pull leafy greens apart and rinse thoroughly 7-5

6 Prepping Specific Food
When prepping breaded or battered food: Prep batter in small batches Throw out unused batter or breading Do NOT use the same batter or breading for different food items Instructor Notes Batters made with eggs or milk run the risk of time-temperature abuse and cross-contamination. Breading must also be handled with care, because cross-contamination is a risk. If you have leftover batter, store what you don’t need at 41°F (5°C) or lower in a covered container. Create a plan to throw out any unused batter or breading after at set amount of time. This might be after using a batch or at the end of a shift. 7-7

7 Prepping Specific Food
When prepping salads containing PHF food: Make sure leftover ingredients have been handled safely by ensuring that they were: (i.e., pasta, chicken, potatoes) Cooked, held, and cooled correctly Stored for less than 7 days at 41°F (5°C) or lower Instructor Notes Chicken, tuna, egg, pasta, and potato salads all have been involved in foodborne-illness outbreaks. These salads usually are not cooked after preparation. This means you do not have a chance to get rid of pathogens, like hepatitis A, that may have gotten into the salad when it was made. Check the use-by date before using leftover TCS food in salads. 7-10

8 Prepping Specific Food
To avoid contaminating ice: Store ice scoops outside ice machines Never use a glass to scoop ice or touch ice with hands 7-13

9 Cooking Food When cooking TCS food, the internal portion must:
Reach the required minimum internal temperature Hold that temperature for a specific amount of time Instructor Notes The only way to reduce pathogens in food to safe levels is to cook it to its required minimum internal temperature. This temperature is different for each food. If customers request that food items be cooked to temperatures lower than their minimum internal temperatures, you need to inform the customers of the potential risk of foodborne illness. Also be aware of special menu restrictions if you serve high-risk populations. While cooking reduces pathogens in food, it does not destroy spores or toxins they may have produced. You still must handle food correctly before you cook it. 7-16

10 Methods for Cooling Food
Before cooling food, start by reducing its size: Cut larger items into smaller pieces Divide large containers of food into smaller containers or shallow pans 7-28

11 Methods for Cooling Food
Safe Methods for Cooling Food Place it in an ice-water bath Stir it with an ice paddle Place it in a blast chiller Place it in a tumble chiller Instructor Notes Never place large quantities of hot food in a cooler to cool. Coolers are designed to keep cold food cold. Most are not designed to cool hot food quickly. Also, placing hot food in a cooler or freezer to cool it may not move the food through the temperature danger zone quickly enough. After dividing food into smaller containers, place them in a clean prep sink or a large pot filled with ice water. Stir the food frequently to cool it faster and more evenly. Plastic paddles are available that can be filled with ice or with water and then frozen. Food stirred with these paddles will cool quickly. Food cools even faster when placed in an ice-water bath and stirred with an ice paddle. Blast chillers blast cold air across food at high speeds to remove heat. They are typically used to cool large amounts of food. Tumble chillers tumble bags of hot food in cold water. Tumble chillers work well on thick food such as mashed potatoes. Food can also be cooled by adding ice or cold water as an ingredient. This works for soups, stews, and other recipes that have water as an ingredient. When cooling this way, the recipe is made with less water than required. Cold water or ice is then added after cooking to cool the food and provide the remaining water. 7-29

12 Reheating Food Food Reheated for Immediate Service
Can be reheated to any temperature if it was cooked and cooled correctly Food Reheated for Hot-Holding Must be reheated to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours 7-30

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