Presentation on theme: "1/31/13 Period 4 Attendance Mitosis Brainpop"— Presentation transcript:
1 1/31/13 Period 4 Attendance Mitosis Brainpop Time to finish work from yesterday.Time to finish textbook work from Monday
2 Steps to making a chewing gum neuron: Chew your gum.Fold a piece of wax paper so it looks like a book.On the inside of the book – use your chewed gum to make a neuron.Stretch it out to make axon (globs on both ends)Make cell body from the bigger globMake dendrites from the cell bodyMake terminal branches from the smaller blob. The very tips of these will be the axon terminals.Put the pea in the middle of the cell body to be the nucleus.Put rice spaced out on the axon to be the myelin sheaths.The spaces in between the rice will be the Nodes of Ranvier.
3 4. Fold over the wax paper to close the book. Press down lightly. 5. Cut the wax paper around your neuron.6. Cut out an interesting pattern of green papers to act as a frame to go under your wax paper.7. Glue all to a regular piece of copy paper.8. Use the little sticky dots to label the eight parts.9. Make a key of the dot numbers and names. Include the function of each part too.10. Look over the grading rubric to make sure that you will get maximum credit for this lab! Staple everything together – including rubric and turn it in!You will need: gum, paper clip, wax paper, five grains of rice, one pea, sticky label dots, glue
4 WHAT PARTS DO YOU KNOW THAT ARE IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM? BrainSpinal CordPeripheral Nerves
5 What makes up the brain, the spinal cord or your peripheral nerves? What makes up the brain, the spinal cord or your peripheral nerves?Neurons are “the cell”Cell bodyNucleusAxonDendriteWhat do you think surrounds the cell?What other organelles would be needed?
10 Close up look at your synapse AXONWhat is this in the membrane?The synapse - where the action happensTransport proteinThe next cell’s plasma membrane
11 How does the Synapse carry the signal? 1. Electrical current travels down the axon2. Vesicles with chemicals move toward the membrane - what is that called?3. Chemicals are released and diffuse toward the next cell’s plasma membrane4. The chemicals open up the transport proteins and allow the signal to pass to the next cell - what type of diffusion is this?
12 1 3 4 2 The synapse carries a signal from cell to cell 1342
13 There are lots of proteins and chemicals in your body to do the work Why is it important that it is an electrical current?
14 Are all neurons equal in size? Are all neurons equal in size?Brain vs spinal cord vs peripheral nerves?About how many neurons are in the human brain?100 billionAbout how many neurons are in the spinal cord?1 billionHow long do you think the longest axon in the world is?around 15 feet
15 How many synapses are in one neuron? 1,000 to 10,000!!
16 This science is called Neurobiology Looking at the actual cells - how do they work?Looking at the connections - how and when do they work?Looking at what can change normal cells and connectionsLooking at diseases that occur in the brainOne of the largest areas still unknownThe you that is you is because of your neurons connecting!
17 What do you think can change neurons and their connections? What do you think can change neurons and their connections?AccidentsDrugsAlcoholDisease
18 Accidents Physical injury of your neurons Physical injury of your neurons
19 Drugs and alcohol bind important receptors on neurons
20 Repeated binding causes the neuron to die http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/materials.htm
23 Alcohol damages dendrites - can repair after abstinence Alcohol blocks receptors and slows down transmission
24 ALS - Lou Gehrig’s Disease Huntington’s Disease Multiple Sclerosis Parkinson's DiseaseALS - Lou Gehrig’s DiseaseHuntington’s DiseaseMultiple SclerosisAlzheimer'sCerebral PalsyEpilepsy? SIDSParkinson’s disease – nerve cells break down, no known cause yet, tremblingLou Gehrig’s disease - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis voluntary movement stops and then paralysisHuntington’s disease – coordination decline, trouble thinking and mental illnessAlzheimer’s – memory loss and intellectual abilitiesCerebral Palsy – brain damage that affects movement, depth perception, sensing the environmentEpilepsy – electrical impulses are interrupted and faints and convulses
25 100 Billion or so neurons - what’s the problem with some of them dying? Does everyone react the same way to accidents, or drugs and alcohol?Do all organisms react the same to all stimulus?Cells multiply all the time - will your neurons?Which of your activities use your neurons?
26 or here or here or here or here What if neurons die here?
27 Thinking About… …Doping for Gold a video about the beginning of organized doping in international athletic competition
28 Let’s Divide Our Thinking Into: The Science of SteroidsThe Influence of a Society on Steroid UseIn the GDR in the 1960s – 1980sIn international competition today
29 So…Is Steroid Use Good or Bad? Let’s take a look at what steroids can actually do!
30 What effects can testosterone - based steroids have on the human body? The Science of SteroidsQuestion:What effects can testosterone - based steroids have on the human body?
31 She’s a lovely lass. But are you a little afraid to bring her home to meet Mom? This is a woman; hence the bikini top.
32 Concepts ofbeauty are often cultural.Body builders have their own culture.What are your views of symmetry and strength in the human body?
33 Most Steroid Users Don’t Look as Extreme as the Previous Two Photos! Max Jaben, an American on the Israeli Olympic Swim Team in 2008 is shown here. He tested positive for the anabolic steroid called boldenone in July 2008.He was banned from the August 2008 Olympics in July The ban was for 2 years.Numerous countries had topathletes banned from the2008 Games because they tested positive for steroids.Students may wonder how an American swims for the team of a different country. Jaben, and no-one in his immediate family, is Isreali born, but under aliyah, the law of Jewish return, a Jew from anywhere in the world can return to Israel and gain citizenship. (Citizens can compete for an Olympic team. The U.S. doesn’t recognize dual citizenship, but many countries do.)Jaban maintains his innocence, although he had a tough time convincing officials. Boldenone is almost impossible to take unknowingly; it has to be either injected or absorbed through the skin by way of an ointment. Originally developed for horses, it has a very long half-life – a very small dose will still show traces in a drug test 5 months later. It would be an extremely stupid steriod to take b/c there is no way to mask it – if an athlete takes it, the drug test will show positive! So Jaben maintains his innocence, and he has the logic of why would a new Olympian take such a stupid step, but on the other hand, it IS practically impossible to take unknowingly. (The drug is inactivated by liver enzymes if taken orally.)columbiamissourian.com
34 The Science of Steroids How do steroids produce these changes?Well…the story starts with the membrane of the nucleus that guards against uninvited visitors to that precious prisoner of the nucleus, the DNA.Except for…
35 …the fact that steroids have a “special pass …the fact that steroids have a “special pass.” Once a steroid gets into the cell, it picks up its pass, and gets carried right into the nucleus!The special pass is called the hormone receptor. The receptionist says “The doctor will see you now!” So what does the hormone receptor “say”?
36 Shape! “The nucleus will see you now!” And what language is the steroid and the hormone receptor speaking? Of course, it’s the language of the body…Shape!Let’s visualize this – is your pen ready to jot some info on this shape conversation?
37 SteroidOutside of cellInside of cell1Cell membrane2Nuclear membrane45Steroid receptorNew protein synthesized63How do anabolic steroids work? Let’s break it down in order14_____binds with_____. This activates a section of DNA.____________is outside the_______.2DNA _________________ for making a _____________are carried out of the____________.Steroid ________across ______________5Steroid binds to the “pass,” the ____________ ___________. Together they are the hormone receptor complex (HRC). The ______ enters the__________________.3__________molecules are made and _____________ increases.6
38 What Effects Do Steroids Have? The Science of SteroidsWhat Effects Do Steroids Have?They increase protein synthesis in cells, so cells make more tissueThis process of cell tissue building is called anabolism; the drugs are often called anabolic steroidsMuscle tissue breaks down more slowlyCells differentiate more easily into muscle cells instead of fat cells
39 Additional Positive Effects of Anabolic Steroids These can be used for good medical purposes:Increase muscle tissue healingIncrease appetiteIncrease bone growthStimulate delayed puberty
40 But Negative Side Effects Can Occur Influence masculine traits such as hair growth, vocal cord development in womenInfluence hair loss and low sperm count in menCan have negative effects on liver tissue, reproductive tissue and heart muscleIncrease competitiveness and aggressiveness because anabolic steroids affect the limbic system of the brainYou may have emphasized in the Phineas Gage video that the limbic system (emotions) of the brain was separated from the frontal cortex, hence the lack of control over emotions. If you did, this is an easy reinforcing link that you can make with anabolic steroids.
41 Let’s Recap: The Science of Steroids What special ability do anabolic steroids have in the cell? They pick up a “pass” to enter the nucleus. What is the term for the “pass?” Hormone receptor Once in the nucleus, then what? The HRC activates a section of DNA to give directions What directions from the DNA does the steroid activate? Make more tissue! Where is this tissue actually made? At the organelles called ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm.
42 What is an anabolic steroid? The Science of SteroidsWhat is an anabolic steroid?A type of steroid that produces tissue growthAre all steroids anabolic?No. Some steroids reduce swelling and don’t cause tissue growth. This type is called a cortico-steroid. They are not likely to be abused because they don’t cause tissue building.
43 Switch Gears Now!What is the effect of a society on steroid use?
44 The Geography of the GDR The Influence of a Society on Steroid UseThe Geography of the GDRThe GDR (German Democratic Republic), known as East Germany was smaller than the FRG (Federal Republic of Germany), or West Germany.What countries border the GDR?Those countries were under the control of the Soviet Union
45 A larger view. Note that the countries bordering the GDR (Poland and the then Czechoslovakia) were under Soviet control as were the countries bordering them going east into the now Russia.
46 W H Y ? Heidi Kreiger Andreas Kreiger Heidi Kreiger The Influence of a Society on Steroid UseWHY?Heidi Kreigerfrance24.comHeidi Kreiger – East German shot-put competitor. Unknowingly dosed with steroids while competing to the point that she later had difficulty identifying herself as a woman. Had a gender change operation after competitive life was over.all-athletics.comAndreas KreigerHeidi Kreiger
47 The Influence of a Society on Steroid Use As Andreas Kreiger, he married a former competitive swimmer from East Germany. She also was the unwitting recipient of steroids, but swimmers (1) didn’t develop the same type of muscle mass as shot-putters, and (2) she got out of the competitive scene before he did. Perhaps only a fellow-sufferer would be able to truly empathize with the depth of loss and sadness produced by the medical deception.beijing-olympics2k8.blogspot.com
48 Happier Times NowUte Krause and Andreas Kreiger met during court trials in 2000 about the misuse of steroids with athletes. After a failed suicide attempt in 1983, she took a job as a nurse trainee. She ran into the “little blue pills” that were so familiar to her in her nursing career, discovering with shock that they were not vitamins, but powerful medications used after chemotherapy.Andreas Kreiger requires regular injections of testosterone to maintain overt male characteristics , which his wife administers.Information in these notes is taken from a blog written by a transgendered woman, which you can find here:The human spirit, like the human body, has tremendous abilities to heal after traumatic stress.
49 What happened to the chosen children and young adults? The Influence of a Society on Steroid UseThe GDR wanted to use successful sports programs to cheer up a depressed nation.What happened to the chosen children and young adults?How did the athletes get the steroids?Did they know they were receiving steroids?How did steroids affect their trainingAt first? Later?
50 What would have been the pressures on you in your decisions? The Influence of a Society on Steroid UseIf you were one of the athletes, how do you think you would have reacted to your suspicions that you were getting more than vitamins?What would have been the pressures on you in your decisions?What would have happened to you?How would you feel about your medals?
51 Decades later: the former chief doctor of East Germany's swimming team was convicted of giving performance-enhancing drugs to young athletes without telling them.Lothar Kipke, 72, was fined 7,500 German marks ($3,900) and given a 15-month suspended jail sentence.He was convicted on more than 50 charges of causing bodily harm by giving them steroids.news.bbc.co.uk
52 The Influence of a Society on Steroid Use 3. Prosecutors said that neither the swimmers nor their parents were told about the drugs and were therefore unaware that they might suffer side-effects.4. The women involved in the case are now suffering from such problems as disturbed muscle growth, excessive body hair and a deepened voice.1. Judge Peter Faust said Kipke had played a key role in the East German system to give swimmers steroids in order to boost their performance, and that he knew the drugs “harmful side effects.”2. The doctor admitted that he had provided the drugs - a widespread practice in communist East German sport - but he said that in the 1970s little was known about their potential side-effects.
53 Two former East German swimming champions blame their babies' disabilities on the steroids. One has a daughter who was born blind, the other a son with a club foot.They say Dr Kipke continued to give them drugs despite knowing the potential consequences(Lothar Kipke, 72, was fined 7,500 German marks ($3,900) and given a 15-month suspended jail sentence.)
54 The Influence of a Society on Steroid Use Our Hero:Tessa Sanderson of EnglandWon the Gold, finally, in 1984!Steadfastly refused to use steroids through-out her career.Prevailed over East German Ruth Fuchs,her long-time steroid-using nemesis whohad beaten her many times.Ruth Fuchs later became a well-known politician in Germany (the Left Party). She has consistently maintained that there was nothing wrong with the steroid administration and that she was and is proud to have been part of East Germany’s international athletic glory.Photo: GETTY IMAGESBournelocal.co.uk.com. 08/11/11
55 What were the influences on Tessa Sanderson to NOT take steroids? She competed internationally at a time when steroids were being taken by her competitorsThis included GDR athlete Ruth Fuchs who beat her many times! (Ruth Fuchs was given steroids and by the 1970s steroid use was suspected of the East Germans by other countries)Why do you think she resisted taking steroids?How do you think you would have responded if you were in her shoes?
56 Science doesn’t have its own independent values of good or bad, right or wrong, righteousness or evilness.These are values placed on the use of science by a society through its laws, or by individuals in the society, sometimes in opposition to current laws.
57 In the GDR, the government thought that people didn’t need to know about steroids, they just needed to perform.In our society, anabolic steroid use by athletes is illegal. Why? Is this fair or unfair?Should athletes be legally allowed to take risks with their health?If everyone KNEW who was taking steroids would that affect competition?Would it make athletes less likely to abuse steroids or more likely?What do you think?Should steroid use by athletes be illegal or legal?
59 Hormones- chemical messengers carried by blood- May stimulate other glandsRegulate growth, development, metabolism, sex processes
60 Hormones need a specific receptor on a specific cell to do their job
61 Major Glands of the Endocrine system PituitaryThyroidParathyroidAdrenal.PancreasOvariesTestes
62 Pituitary gland Master gland of body Located in the depression of sphenoid boneProduces many hormones that affect other glandsthyroid stimulating hormoneSomatotropin- growth hormoneLutenizing (LH)- causes ovulationICSH- causes testes to secrete testosteroneMelanocyte stimulating- distribution of melanin in skinADH- antidiuretic hormone
63 Giantism- oversecretion of somatotropin before puberty Dwarfism- undersecretion of somatotropin. Cause: tumor, injury, infection, geneticsDiabetes insipidus- decreased ADH
64 Thyroid gland must have any source of iodine Thyroid- produces hormones that control metabolism and calcium in blood.Thyroid gland must have any source of iodinegoiter- not enough iodinehyperthyroidismhypothyroidism
65 Located just above the kidney Secretes many hormones Epinephrine Adrenal glandsLocated just above the kidneySecretes many hormonesEpinephrineNorepinephrineMany steroid hormones, inc estrogen and androgens.Steroids have a three ring chemical structure
66 Pancreas-pancreatic juices into the intestinesecretes insulin, a hormone that transports glucose into cells.Also secretes glucagon- increases glucose in bloodstream
67 Cause- decreased secretion of insulin Symptoms Diabetes Mellitus-Cause- decreased secretion of insulinSymptomsExcessive thirst, excessive urination, hyperglycemia, slow healing of skin infectionsAffects 21 million in US: 7% of populationEstimated 1/3 of people who have diabetes don’t know it225,000 die each year132 billion/year- 10% of our health care spending
68 Insulin was the first hormone identified (late 1920's) which won the doctor and medical student who discovered it the Nobel Prize (Banting and Best)Human Insulin - First ever approved genetically engineered human therapeutic by Genentech
70 Male Reproductive System urinary bladderseminal vesiclesprostate glandurethrapenisrectumepididymisCowper’s glandtestis/testesvas deferensscrotum
71 Male Reproductive System (frontal view) See p. 62 in Review book
72 Male Reproductive System Scrotum – sac of skin that holds testes. Hangs below body to keep testes cool. Sperm cannot be produced if body is too warm. Testes move into scrotum just before birth.Testis/testes – male gonads. Made up of small, coiled tubes – seminiferous tubules per testis. Immature sperm made here.Secrete testosterone
73 Male Reproductive System Epididymis – storage area in upper rear of testis. Immature sperm move here to mature – takes 18 hours.Vas deferens – tube that leads upwards from each testis into lower part of abdomen from epididymis.Cowper’s gland – produces fluids that nourish sperm and protect them from the acidity of female.Combination of sperm and fluids - semen
74 Male Reproductive System 6. Rectum – holds wastes7. Seminal vesicles – same job as Cowper’s gland8. Urinary bladder – stores urine9. Prostate gland – same job as Cowper’s gland and seminal vesicles10. Urethra – passageway for excretion of urine and for sperm to leave body. Vas deferens empties into urethra
75 Male Reproductive System 11. Penis – male reproductive organ. Facilitates internal fertilizationEjaculation – muscular contractions force semen through urethra. Before, during and after ejaculation reflex actions keep outlet of bladder closed
76 Hormones and Negative Feedback in Males Negative Feedback – change that leads to a response that causes something to counteract that changeLuteinizing Hormone (LH) – stimulates testes to produce testosteroneTestosterone – stimulates development of sperm. Once there is a large number of sperm, puberty is complete.
78 What is the effect of high levels of LH? Testosterone is producedWhat is the effect of high levels of testosterone?Slows production of LH which in turn slows production of testosteroneWhat is the overall outcome of this on-off negative feedback system involving LH and testosterone?Nearly constant level of both hormones - homeostasis
79 Another Way of Looking at Negative Feedback in the Male Reproductive System BrainPituitary glandMale Reproductive Organstarget cells – receptor cellsLH stimulates the testes cells
80 Male Reproductive System and Hormones Explain how LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone.Circulates in the blood- reaches the testes target cells – stimulates them to produce testosteroneWhat happens when the levels of testosterone are too high in the body?LH level dropsWhat is negative feedback and how does it maintain homeostasis?Change in conditions triggers response in body to counteract that condition. Keeps hormones in balance
81 Female Reproductive System oviductovaryUrinary bladderuterusurethrarectumcervixvagina
82 Female Reproductive System (frontal view) See p. 61 in Review book
84 Follicles – each ovary contains 200,000 egg sacs called follicles Follicles – each ovary contains 200,000 egg sacs called follicles. In each follicle is an immature egg.All the eggs are present at birth. During the woman’s lifetime 500 eggs matureWhen an egg matures, follicle moves to surface of ovary.Follicle breaks & releases the egg – ovulationEgg can be fertilized for about 24 hours after ovulation
85 Female Reproductive System 2. Oviduct (fallopian tube) – Each ovary is near but not connected to oviduct. Tube with funnel-like opening. Cilia line it to create a current that draws the egg into the tube. Egg is fertilized in the oviduct3. Uterus – thick, muscular, pear-shaped organ. Once egg is fertilized it finishes its development in uterus attached to uterine wall
86 Female Reproductive System 4. Urinary bladder – storage of urine5. Urethra – passage of urine to outside of body6. Vagina (birth canal) – leads to outside of body7. Cervix – narrow neck of uterus8. Rectum – passage for wastes
87 The Menstrual Cycle What is the menstrual cycle? Cycle during which an egg develops and is released from the ovary and the uterus is prepared to receive a fertilized eggMenarche: first menstrual period – usually occurs between 11 and 12Menopause: time when a woman stops menstruating, usually between 45 & 55 and is no longer able to conceive.
89 The Menstrual Cycle1. Menstruation: Loss of egg and uterine tissue via vagina if fertilization does not occur2. Follicle Stage (follicular stage): lasts 10 days, FSH & LH levels increase, egg matures, follicle secretes estrogen to prepare uterus
90 The Menstrual Cycle3. Ovulation: High level of estrogen detected by hypothalamus, increased LH, decreased FSH, follicle bursts – egg released4. Corpus Luteum Stage (Luteal Phase): LH converts follicle to corpus luteum – secretes estrogen & progesterone. Progesterone prepares uterus. Increased progesterone keeps LH & FSH low
91 Another Way of Looking at Negative Feedback in the Female Reproductive System (Hormones of the Menstrual Cycle)BrainPituitary glandFSH (causes egg to mature in follicle)LH (causes to egg to be let go = ovulation)ovaryEstrogen (causes uterine lining to thicken & build up to prepare for egg)uterusProgesterone (helps maintain uterine lining)
92 Hormones of Menstrual Cycle What happens if fertilization occurs?Corpus luteum keeps producing progesterone to maintain pregnancy. After 5 weeks the embryo produces progesterone – this inhibits LH & FSH so no menstrual cycleWhat happens if fertilization does not occur?There is no implantation – the corpus luteum breaks down. Progesterone level drops, uterine lining breaks down – menstruation.FSH & LH are produced again – new cycleAverage Menstrual Cycle is 28 days long
93 Ovulation to Implantation oviductuterusegg from ruptured folliclecervixovaryfolliclevaginasperm
94 Ovulation to Implantation Ovary – produces estrogen & progesterone – meiosis occurs & egg developsEgg matures in follicle of ovaryOvulation – egg released from follicle – may live for 24 hours- egg moves into fallopian tube by cilia
95 Ovulation to Implantation Events in fallopian tubeFertilization occurs here. Sperm lives 4-5 days (egg lives 1 day)Zygote undergoes mitosis & travels down fallopian tube within 6-10 days. Zygote is ready to implant into uterus.
96 Ovulation to Implantation Events in uterusImplantation – embryo implants/embeds into uterine lining & secretes hormone HCG to signal its arrivalCell Differentiation – cells divide by mitosis & become different due to gene expression. Different embryo parts will form.