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Unit 4: Text I  The Invisible Poor.  Teaching aims  Learn the cause-and-effect pattern in expository writing.  Develop some basic skills in text analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4: Text I  The Invisible Poor.  Teaching aims  Learn the cause-and-effect pattern in expository writing.  Develop some basic skills in text analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4: Text I  The Invisible Poor

2  Teaching aims  Learn the cause-and-effect pattern in expository writing.  Develop some basic skills in text analysis -- coherence and cohesion  Have some idea about the poverty problem in the US and take note of the similar problem in China:  Learn to be observant and critical of social phenomena  Main and difficult teaching points: relevant information; understanding the thesis; text organization; text comprehension; language points; the use of cause-and-effect pattern in expository writing  Time allotment: 9 periods

3  Teaching strategies  Call students attention to the neat organization of the text, ask them to take note of coherence in ideas and cohesion in text.  Call attention to cause- and- effect as an expository means. Refer students to page 51 and take note of the two patterns. Give further examples to illustrate.  Call attention to the author’s political concern, and develop an awareness among the students about social issues in China..

4 Teaching Procedures:  I. Warm-up questions I. Warm-up questions  II. Background II. Background  III.Interaction Activity III.Interaction Activity  IV.Structure of the Text IV.Structure of the Text  V. Analysis of Text I VI. Language points V. Analysis of Text I VI. Language points  VII. Difficult sentences for paraphrase VII. Difficult sentences for paraphrase  VIII. Workshop activities VIII. Workshop activities  IX.Halliday grammatical metaphor IX.Halliday grammatical metaphor  IX.Assignment IX.Assignment

5  Teaching Procedures:  I. Warm-up questions  When was the present text written? (the 60s)  How much do you know about the USA in the 60s?  (Vietnam War, revolt of the youth, general disillusionment, etc.)  What do you think is the author’s major concern in writing this article?  Are you surprised to know that there are considerable number of poor people in the USA? What’s people’s general impression of America?  (“A land of plenty”, “the American Dream”)

6  To what extent is the issue discussed in the text relevant to us?  (What China is undergoing now bears some resemblance to the situation of the US in the 60s, in economic development and social transform. The gap between the poor and the rich is widening in China. The causes analyzed by the author for the invisibility of the poor are largely true to the Chinese context.)  What’s your general impression of the text in terms of its writing style? Do you see the pattern the author follows in developing his ideas?

7 II. Background(1)the author Michael Harrington (1928-1989)

8  The Author --- Michael Harrington is a U.S. Professor of political science at Queen’s College, New York, and a member of the Executive Committee of the Socialist Party. His books of social criticism include: The Vast Majority: A Journey to the Worlds’ Poor (1977) and The Next America: The Decline and Rise of the United States (1981).

9  (2)The middle class in the United States --- Broadly speaking, the middle class is the social group between the upper or the wealthy and working classes, including professional and business workers and their families. The middle class is sometimes divided into lower middle and upper middle classes --- a division based on occupational and educational differences. Since World War II, the middle class has been the largest class in the United States, where the middle class participate more in political and voluntary organizations than do the subordinate classes, that is, the lowest paid wage earners and the jobless poor. The middle class in the U. S. also has a higher rate of religious participation than any other class.

10  (3)Slums and ghettos in the United States --- Slums refer to the thickly populated, squalid parts of a city inhabited by the poorest people. A ghetto once referred to a section of a city inhabited by Jews in most European countries in former times. In many cities in the U. S., particularly in the East and the Middle West, slums developed where unemployment led to great suffering and overcrowdedness; moreover, pauperism and crime are widespread.  In the U.S., ghetto is a term used to describe segregated residential areas in the northern U.S. they are typically overcrowded, and have poor housing and high unemployment. They are largely a result of segregation.

11  (4)The labour movement in the United States --- The general purpose of unions has been to protect and advance the well-being of workers. Some participants in and observers of the U.S. labour movement have viewed unions as institutions with the potential to establish industrial democracy and Before 1842 the courts considered unions as such to be conspiracies in restraint of trade. After 1842 strikes were often prohibited by the courts. In 1932 antistrike injunctions were outlawed. U.S. unions finally gained full legal recognition in 1935. The workers were then given the right to form and join unions and to engage in collective bargaining.

12  5. The United States, 1946-2000  The post-world war II era brought a plethora of changes to American life. The country claimed leadership of the “ free world” and entered a sustained period of cold war with the Soviet Union and its allies. In order to combat the spread of communism,the government embarked upon an unprecedented period of peacetime military expansion.

13  Federal support for the development of advanced military technology played a role in research development that undermined the old blue-collar sector of the economy. The increasing application of computer technology helped to transform the nation from a predominantly goods-producing society to a mainly service-producing one. The postwar baby boom; increasing suburbanization,and the continuing spread of American consumer culture all reflected as well as reinforced these trends.

14  Following the end of the Vietnam War, the economy deteriorated, unemployment increased, and Republicans returned to power with a firm determination to end the New Deal social welfare order. By the early.1990s,with the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, the nation sought to craft new policies for a post-cold war world.

15  Mc Carthy’s investigations, the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and wiretaps on the phones of Civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr, all reflected the destructive impact of the cold war at home and abroad.  Beginning with the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 and culminating in the March on Washington for “freedom and jobs” in 1963, civil rights emerged as the most pressing domestic issue facing the nation.

16  Until the late 1960s,the Democratic Party remained committed to the New Deal welfare state and helped push provisions for social services beyond.  The baby boom generation :birth rate soared,20 percent population growth rate in the 1950s resulted from an increase in middle-class birth rates. The boom peaked in 1957.Baby boomers greatly influenced U.S. public, private, and cultural behaviors. Technological changes promote the expansion of consumerism.

17  1945-first computer  1945-Truman Doctrine (Franklin D. Roosevelt passed away.) political persecution- communists, senator Josph R, Mc Carthy  1950-1953 Korea War,  1961-1973 Vietnam War (Eisenhower)  There occurred six economic crises during the period of time from the end of war to the middle of the 1970’s.  (1)1948,(2)1953-1954(Korean War),(3)1957- 1958,(4)1960-1961,(5)1967,(6)1973-1975, (7)1953-1979—about 26 years ----financial deficit.

18 (6)The Other American: Poverty in the United States (1962) One-fourth and one-fifth of Americans still lived in poverty JOHN F. KENNEDY: call for federal action to reduce poverty in the U.S. LYNDON JOHNSON: anti-poverty initiatives known as the WAR ON POVERTY

19 Shameful facts: “other America” ----between 40,000,000 and 50,000,000 Americans lived in poverty Three Groups:  the rural poor in Appalachia  African Americans in the deep South and urban ghettoes  the aged

20 Historical Background A Sharp Contrast An Affluent Society  USA: an unprecedented economic prosperity in the post-war era  By the end of the 1950s, about 60 percent of all American families owned homes 75 percent, cars; 87 percent, at least one TV

21 Outsiders in “the affluent society” 35 million Americans, more than a fifth of the nation still remained victims of  malnutrition  disease  squalor millions more survived on family incomes below four thousand dollars Senate report in 1960: “cannot afford decent housing, proper nutrition, adequate medical care, or necessary recreation.”



24 The house isn't the worst of the problems for 95% of the population – no electricity, gas, running water, or sewage systems


26 III.Interaction Activity What is the current state of poverty in the United States? Why is it that in so wealthy a country like the United States, there still exists such widespread poverty? What are the main factors that contribute to the pervasiveness of deprivation in this richest nation? Among what social, racial, and ethnic groups is poverty most heavily concentrated?

27 IV.Structure of the Text  Part one (paras 1-3) Introduction part :  The millions who are poor in the United States tend to become increasingly invisible.  Part two (paras 4-17): Body part : Causes  Normal causes  Poverty is off the beaten track  Beauty and myths are perennial masks of poverty.  New causes  The American city has been transformed  The new segregation of poverty is compounded by a well-meaning ignorance

28  The mass-production of decent clothes make the poor invisible  Many of the poor are the wrong age to be seen  Political cause  The poor are unable to speak for themselves because they don’t belong to any parties.  Part three (Para 18) Conclusion

29 Reasons Para s. 1Poverty is often off the beaten track. 4 2Beauty and myths are perennial masks of poverty. 5 3The American city has been transformed, but the poor are increasingly isolated from contact with, or sight of, anybody else. 8 4This new segregation of poverty is compounded by a well-meaning ignorance. 9 5Clothes make the poor invisible too. 10,1 1 6Many of the poor are the wrong age to be seen. 13 7The poor are politically invisible. 15- 17

30  An outline of development  Raising the topic: (Para1- 2)  “Millions of poor people in the US are getting invisible.”  Direct opening with a thesis statement (Para 1):  Supporting the thesis statement with the author’s research evidence (i.e. the concrete figure of fifty million) (Para 2)

31  Analyzing the CAUSES for the invisibility of the poor in the U.S.  (Para 3-17)  Reason 1– “Poverty is often off the beaten track” (Para 4)  (Tourists usually fail to see signs of poverty in US) Reason 2 – “Beauty and myths are masks of poverty” (Para 5)  (Hardship and primitive conditions are  misinterpreted in the light of romance.)  Transition -- briefly summarizing the two obvious causes  explained in Para 4 &5 and introducing further specific reasons (i.e. how conditions in America have created a new kind of blindness ) (Para 6)

32  Reason 3 -- Transformation of the American cities has made the  poor invisible to the middle class (Para 7-8)  Reason 4 -- Well-meaning ignorance among the general public  (deceptive housing programs and clothing have kept the concerned and sympathetic Americans from knowing the truth about the poor.) (Para 10-12)

33  Reason 5 -- Demographic (Age) factor (Many of the poor are the wrong age to be seen.) (Para 13-14)  Reason 6 -- Political factor (The poor are politically invisible and powerless.) (Part 15 - 17):  Conclusion: Re-asserting the theme. (Para 18)

34  Questions to elicit students’ responses:  Can you find anywhere in the passage a thesis statement?  What does the word “this” (at the beginning of paragraph 2) refer to?  Do you see any logical connection between the second and the first paragraph?  From paragraph 3 on, the author explains in details why the poor in the US are invisible. Can you identify the several reasons given by the author? Make of list of them.  Read paragraph 3 and comment on the rhetorical function of this

35  paragraph. (Functioning as a topic sentence, indicating a development pattern based on classification)  Look at paragraph 6 and paragraph 9, what does the author do in these two paragraphs? (Summarizing what has been explained previously) What clear signals do you see for summing up or making generalization? Can you supply more such devices?)  The text is a good example of coherence and cohesion. One paragraph is well linked to another. Read through the text very quickly and underline the words or expressions that function as cohesive links. Explain the logical relation involved.

36 V. Analysis of Text I 1.Poverty is often off the beaten track. (para. 4)  What, according to Harrington, has rendered poverty less visible in rural America?  What is the evidence to demonstrate poverty? movie sets --- towns like the movie sets in the thirties company houses --- company houses in rows rutted --- rutted roads --- black and dirty --- unemployed men in the bar runaway sweatshop --- women working in a runaway sweatshop











47 2.Mass production enables the best-dressed poverty to exist. (paras. 11 & 12)  Provide evidence for the decently-dressed poverty. lockers --- No people are in work clothes or in rags in the street because of the lockers in the plants, but in slacks and white shirts, or in stylishly cut suit or dress, even though they are hungry.

48 3.Many of the poor are the wrong age to be seen. (paras. 13 & 14)  What are the age groups where poverty is more likely to be found? Why are they not easy to be seen? or better --- the groups of people at 65 years of age or better and those under 18 --- the aged poor: sick, can’t move, live in loneliness, stay in the neighborhood --- the young poor: stay close to their neighborhood, not disturb that of the middle class and remain unnoticed except when they commit gang killing

49 4.The poor are politically invisible. (paras. 15-17)  Why are the poor politically invisible? --- They are unable to speak for themselves because they have no face, no voice. --- No politicians care about them because their slums are no longer the centers of powerful political organizations, only those unions without any great political power articulate their needs.

50  What is this paragraph about? Or, what is the function of this paragraph? --- transitional paragraph: the first sentence summarizes the two causes discussed in the previous paragraphs; the third sentence elicits another major cause of the invisible poverty.

51 The poor are politically invisible. (paras. 15-17)  What are the words illustrating “no face” and “no voice” ? --- no face: no unions, organizations, political parties, or lobbies; atomized --- no voice: unable to speak for themselves, no legislative program

52 The poor are politically invisible. (paras. 15-17)  How do you understand the sentence “there is not even a cynical political motive for caring about the poor, as in the old days”? --- In the old days, there might be some concern for the poor shown by some people to achieve their own purposes. Their motive of doing so would be cynical. But today, there is not even that kind of concern because slums are no longer visible to the middle class.

53 The poor are politically invisible. (paras. 15-17)  Why is the existence of cheap unorganized labor a menace to wages and working conditions throughout the entire economy? --- The cheap unorganized labor work in poor condition and receive poor pay. Therefore, more wages should be paid to them and better working condition should be provided for them.

54 Para. 18  Can you see the difference between “neglected, forgotten” and “not seen”?  What does the author intend to do in the last paragraph? --- to strengthen his call for the attention to the poverty in the U.S.

55  VI. Language points  1. The millions …tend to become increasingly---The large number of people… are likely to become more and more invisible.  It tends to be stuffy and damp during the rainy season.

56  2.perennial: long-standing, lasting for a long time or forever. e.g.  Environmental pollution seems to be a perennial problem in modern world. The supply of food and water is a perennial problem for desert expedition Love is the perennial theme in literature.  the beaten track: not on the main high way.  track:an old wagon track through the mountains.  一旧马车的道路穿过山区  4.interstate turnpikes: motorways that run between states  5.rut: to furrow

57  6.runaway sweatshop: a sweat shop is a factory in which workers are employed for long hours at low wages and under unhealthy conditions. A runaway sweatshop is an out-and-out sweatshop.  7.foliage: a cluster of leaves  exempt from—be free from a duty,service,payment, an obligation, a duty, or a liability to which others are subject; excused. e.g.

58  Charitable organizations are exempt from taxation. John is exempt from physical education because of poor health.  income exempt from taxation; a beauty somehow exempt from the aging process

59  8.fringe  A marginal, peripheral, or secondary part:  次要事物(外围)周边的、边缘的或次要的 部分:  They like to hang out on the geographical fringes, the seedy outposts(James Atlas)  “ 他们喜欢去偏僻地区和肮脏的偏远村落 ”( 詹 姆斯 · 阿特拉斯 )

60  9.quaint: unfamiliar or unusual in character; strange  10.foray: 1)a sudden raid or military advance; 2) a venture or an initial attempt, especially outside one's usual area.  11.tenement: a rundown, low-rental apartment building whose facilities and maintenance barely meet minimum standards.  12.suburbia: the suburbs of a city  13.compound: to combine so as to form a whole; mix.

61  14.slack: casual trousers that are not part of a suit.  costume  A prevalent fashion of dress, including garments, accessories, and hairstyle.  15.tabloid: a small-format, heavily illustrated newspaper featuring news items of a sensational nature.

62  16.dispossess: to deprive (another) of the possession or occupancy of something, such as real property.  far and large: This is a combination of two phrases: “by far” and “by large”, meaning “to a considerable extent” and “in general”.  18.fraternal: adj. 1) of or relating to brothers;  of or constituting a fraternity, e.g. a fraternal association.  19.legislative: of or relating to the enactment of laws.  20.atomized: reduced to minute particles.

63  VII. Difficult sentences for paraphrase  1.“… it takes an effort of the intellect and will even to see them”: i.e. one has to be clever enough and determined enough if one wishes to see them. In other words, if one is slow in seeing things and if one is indifferent to anything, one will not see them.  2.“The poor are increasingly slipping out of the very experience and consciousness of the nation.”: i.e. The poor are more and more getting out of the life and mind of the people in general in the country. That is, people are getting less and less aware of the presence of the poor in their life and mind.

64 3.“This new segregation of poverty is compounded by a well-meaning ignorance.” : i.e. This new separation of poverty from affluence is made worse by a well-intentioned ignorance. 4.“our emotional and existential ignorance of poverty”: i.e. our ignorance of poverty which we are not aware of and which does exist. In other words, we really do not know that there is poverty.

65  VIII. Workshop activities  Students from different places in China pool together their ideas about the poverty problem in China. (from personal experience, news reports, research work, etc. )  Work together to analyze the problem from a more professional point of view: giving evidence to prove its existence, analyzing causes and effects, and finding possible solutions.  Compare and contrast the situation in China with what’s been analyzed in the text.

66 IX.Halliday grammatical metaphor 功能语言学导论 Ho 215 大学英语语法讲座与测试 H314/105  1(a)The fifth day saw them at the summit.  1(b) They arrived at the summit on the fifth day.  2(a) Fire intensity has a profound effect on smoke injection.  2(b) The intensity of a fire profoundly affects the injection of smoke.  3(a) According to the intensity of a fire, more or less smoke is injected.  3(b) As a fire grows more intense, so more smoke is injected.

67  Thirteen kinds of grammatical metaphor:  1.quality-→entity:  unstable--- unstability, safe--- safety  2.process→entity:  transform---transformation, invention, will/be going to--- prospect, can/could- →possibility, potential.  3.circumstance-→entity:  with—accompaniment,to---destination.

68  4.relator-→entity:  so –cause/proof, if –condition  5.process→quality:  increase---increasing,was/used to--- previous,must/will(always)—constant;  6.circumstance-→quality:  decided hastily---hasty decision, argued for a long time----lengthy argument, [cracked] on the surface----surface [cracks];  7.relator -→quality:  then— subsequent, so —resulting;

69  8.circumstance-→process  be about-concern, be instead of – replace;  9.relator -→circumstance  then---follow,so---cause,and --- complement;  10.relator-→circumstance  when---in times of/in…, if ---under conditions of /under… conditions;

70  10.[zero] -→entity:  The phenomenon of  11.[zero] -→process  Occurs/ensures;  12.entity -→expansion:  the government [decided]…the government’s [decision], [a decision] by the government, [a ] governmental [decision]

71  X.Assignment  Based on the workshop activities, write a cause-and–effect paper with the title The Invisible Poor in China.


73 Topics for after-class discussion What is the poverty problem like in China? What are the chief reasons for the yarning gap between the rich and the poor in our country?

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