2 Geography Human Geography Physical Geography Earth To write The study of where and why human activities are located where they are (i.e. religions, businesses, and cities)The study of where and why natural forces occur as they do (i.e. climates, landforms, and types of vegetation)
3 VOCABULARYMap- 2 dimensional or flat scale model of the Earth’s surface or a portion of itPlace- specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristicRegion- area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical featuresScale- relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and the Earth as a wholeSpace- the gap between 2 objectsConnections- relationships between people and space
5 Reference tool Communications tool A map could be drawn on the back of a cocktail napkin, computer-generated, or a work of artReference toolCommunications toolA map helps us to find the shortest route between two places and to avoid getting lost along the wayWhere something is in relation to another placeEx. atlas or road mapA map can depict the distribution of human activities or physical features and why they are distributed that way
6 Eratosthenes: first to record the use of the word geography Ptolemy: wrote Guide to Geography; first to codify the basic principles of mapmakingEratosthenes: first to record the use of the word geographyAristotle: first to say earth was spherical
7 Map ScaleScale refers to the relationship of a feature’s size on a map to its actual size on earth.It is represented in three ways:A ratio or fractionA written scaleA graphic scale
8 A ratio or fraction:This shows the numerical ratio between distances on the map and Earth’s surface.1:24,000 or 1/24,000 means that 1 unit (usually an inch) on the map represents 24,000 of the same unit on the ground.This is also called the RF scale or representative fraction.
23 Types of maps Page IX - X in atlas Maps helps us visualize infoInternet use 1996, 2001, 2007, 2015
24 1. Robinson ProjectionPro: Useful in displaying information across oceans along longitude linesCon: Shows a larger proportion of water to land than actuality
25 2. Mercator Projection Pro: works for navigation around the Equator Con: area is extremely distorted towards the poles
26 3. Equal Area Projections Azimuthal and Goode’s Interrupted HomolosinePro: Very little distortion to landmassesCon: Discontinuities in oceanic regions
27 Types of MapsPhysical maps show elevation, mountains, rivers, deserts etc…
28 Types of MapsPolitical maps show countries, cities, capitals, counties.
29 Special purpose mapsMaps designed for a special purpose. Highway maps, population maps, etc…
30 Maps have four properties Maps have four properties. When you take a round globe and “flatten” it, one or more of these properties will be “distorted.”The properties of maps include:scaledistanceareadirection
31 4. Choropleth mapsApplies distinctive colors to represent different quantities or densitiesTypically on a map of a formal region (political)
41 MAP PROJECTIONS3. Draw in these shapes/projections in your notes… and answer the 3 questions for EACH projectionA. What is distorted?B. What is the map used for?C. How can you recognize this map?NameNameNameName
42 U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785-divided the country into a system of townships and ranges to facilitate the sale of land in the West
43 Township- square composed of 6 miles/side Principle meridians- north-south lines separating townshipsBase lines- east- west lines separating townshipsSection- township is divided into 36 of these, 1 mi by 1 miQuarter-section- .5 mi by .5 mi or 160 acres, considered a homestead to pioneers
45 Latitude Lines Imaginary lines that run east to west around the globe Measure degrees north and south of the EquatorThe Equator is at 0 degrees
46 The imaginary line at 0° latitude, or at 0° on an X Axis The EquatorThe imaginary line at 0° latitude, or at 0° on an X Axis
47 Helpful HintThe steps of a ladder- ladder sounds like latitude- make the latitude lines.
48 Each degree of latitude and longitude is divided into 60 minutes, and each minute divided into 60 seconds
49 Longitude LinesImaginary lines that run from the north pole to the south poleMeasure degrees east and west of the Prime MeridianThe Prime Meridian is at 0° Longitude, or at 0° on a Y Axis
50 The imaginary line at 0° longitude The Prime MeridianThe imaginary line at 0° longitude
51 Helpful Hint:If you stretch your body out as LONG as you can make it- this is a longitude line…
52 Calculating Latitude and Longitude Always calculate Latitude FirstNorth and South of the EquatorThen calculate LongitudeEast and West of the Prime Meridian
53 How to Read Latitude and Longitude If you know the latitude and longitude of a place, put one finger on the line of latitude and another on the line of longitude. Bring your fingers together until they meet.
54 It helps to make a map North East North West South West South East Prime MeridianEquatorSouth WestSouth East
55 USING AN ATLAS OR TEXTBOOK LOCATE THE COORDINATES AND WRITE DONE THE NAME OF THE CITY.