# Unit 1: Basic Concepts.

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Unit 1: Basic Concepts

Geography Human Geography Physical Geography Earth To write
The study of where and why human activities are located where they are (i.e. religions, businesses, and cities) The study of where and why natural forces occur as they do (i.e. climates, landforms, and types of vegetation)

VOCABULARY Map- 2 dimensional or flat scale model of the Earth’s surface or a portion of it Place- specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic Region- area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features Scale- relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and the Earth as a whole Space- the gap between 2 objects Connections- relationships between people and space

How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

Reference tool Communications tool
A map could be drawn on the back of a cocktail napkin, computer-generated, or a work of art Reference tool Communications tool A map helps us to find the shortest route between two places and to avoid getting lost along the way Where something is in relation to another place Ex. atlas or road map A map can depict the distribution of human activities or physical features and why they are distributed that way

Eratosthenes: first to record the use of the word geography
Ptolemy: wrote Guide to Geography; first to codify the basic principles of mapmaking Eratosthenes: first to record the use of the word geography Aristotle: first to say earth was spherical

Map Scale Scale refers to the relationship of a feature’s size on a map to its actual size on earth. It is represented in three ways: A ratio or fraction A written scale A graphic scale

A ratio or fraction: This shows the numerical ratio between distances on the map and Earth’s surface. 1:24,000 or 1/24,000 means that 1 unit (usually an inch) on the map represents 24,000 of the same unit on the ground. This is also called the RF scale or representative fraction.

Topographic map showing RF scale

A written (verbal) scale:
Describes the relation between map and Earth distances in words. 1 inch equals 1 mile

A graphic scale: Usually a bar line marked to show distance on Earth’s surface.

Map projection: Scientific method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map. Different projections show distortion in: Shape Distance Relative size Direction

Shape

Distance

Relative size

Direction

India Map of Kashmir Pakistan Map of Kashmir

Types of maps Page IX - X in atlas
Maps helps us visualize info Internet use 1996, 2001, 2007, 2015

1. Robinson Projection Pro: Useful in displaying information across oceans along longitude lines Con: Shows a larger proportion of water to land than actuality

2. Mercator Projection Pro: works for navigation around the Equator
Con: area is extremely distorted towards the poles

3. Equal Area Projections
Azimuthal and Goode’s Interrupted Homolosine Pro: Very little distortion to landmasses Con: Discontinuities in oceanic regions

Types of Maps Physical maps show elevation, mountains, rivers, deserts etc…

Types of Maps Political maps show countries, cities, capitals, counties.

Special purpose maps Maps designed for a special purpose. Highway maps, population maps, etc…

Maps have four properties
Maps have four properties. When you take a round globe and “flatten” it, one or more of these properties will be “distorted.” The properties of maps include: scale distance area direction

4. Choropleth maps Applies distinctive colors to represent different quantities or densities Typically on a map of a formal region (political)

5. Dot distribution/Dot Density map
Shows distribution using a concentration of dots Each dot represents the same quantity Used for population density

6. Isopleth of Isoline maps
Used to portray quantities that vary smoothly over a given area Joins locations with the same value Used for climate variables

7. Proportional symbol map
Portrays numerical quantities Symbols are drawn proportional to the value at that location

8. Cartogram Deliberately distort map shapes to achieve special effects

Mercator Projection

Robinson Projection

Equal-Area Projection

Azimuthal-Polar

MAP PROJECTIONS 3. Draw in these shapes/projections in your notes… and answer the 3 questions for EACH projection A. What is distorted? B. What is the map used for? C. How can you recognize this map? Name Name Name Name

U.S. Land Ordinance of 1785 -divided the country into a system of townships and ranges to facilitate the sale of land in the West

Township- square composed of 6 miles/side
Principle meridians- north-south lines separating townships Base lines- east- west lines separating townships Section- township is divided into 36 of these, 1 mi by 1 mi Quarter-section- .5 mi by .5 mi or 160 acres, considered a homestead to pioneers

Latitude and Longitude

Latitude Lines Imaginary lines that run east to west around the globe
Measure degrees north and south of the Equator The Equator is at 0 degrees

The imaginary line at 0° latitude, or at 0° on an X Axis
The Equator The imaginary line at 0° latitude, or at 0° on an X Axis

Each degree of latitude and longitude is divided into 60 minutes, and each minute divided into 60 seconds

Longitude Lines Imaginary lines that run from the north pole to the south pole Measure degrees east and west of the Prime Meridian The Prime Meridian is at 0° Longitude, or at 0° on a Y Axis

The imaginary line at 0° longitude
The Prime Meridian The imaginary line at 0° longitude

Helpful Hint: If you stretch your body out as LONG as you can make it- this is a longitude line…

Calculating Latitude and Longitude
Always calculate Latitude First North and South of the Equator Then calculate Longitude East and West of the Prime Meridian

How to Read Latitude and Longitude
If you know the latitude and longitude of a place, put one finger on the line of latitude and another on the line of longitude. Bring your fingers together until they meet.

It helps to make a map North East North West South West South East
Prime Meridian Equator South West South East

USING AN ATLAS OR TEXTBOOK LOCATE THE COORDINATES AND WRITE DONE THE NAME OF THE CITY.