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Geography Earth To write The study of where and why human activities are located where they are (i.e. religions, businesses, and cities) The study of.

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Presentation on theme: "Geography Earth To write The study of where and why human activities are located where they are (i.e. religions, businesses, and cities) The study of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Geography Earth To write The study of where and why human activities are located where they are (i.e. religions, businesses, and cities) The study of where and why natural forces occur as they do (i.e. climates, landforms, and types of vegetation) Human Geography Physical Geography

3 Map- 2 dimensional or flat scale model of the Earth’s surface or a portion of it Map- 2 dimensional or flat scale model of the Earth’s surface or a portion of it Place- specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic Place- specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic Region- area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features Region- area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features Scale- relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and the Earth as a whole Scale- relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and the Earth as a whole Space- the gap between 2 objects Space- the gap between 2 objects Connections- relationships between people and space Connections- relationships between people and space

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5 A map could be drawn on the back of a cocktail napkin, computer-generated, or a work of art A map helps us to find the shortest route between two places and to avoid getting lost along the way Where something is in relation to another place Ex. atlas or road map A map can depict the distribution of human activities or physical features and why they are distributed that way

6 Ptolemy Ptolemy : wrote Guide to Geography; first to codify the basic principles of mapmaking Eratosthenes Eratosthenes : first to record the use of the word geography Aristotle Aristotle : first to say earth was spherical

7 Scale refers to the relationship of a feature’s size on a map to its actual size on earth. Scale refers to the relationship of a feature’s size on a map to its actual size on earth. It is represented in three ways: It is represented in three ways: A ratio or fraction A ratio or fraction A written scale A written scale A graphic scale A graphic scale

8 A ratio or fraction: This shows the numerical ratio between distances on the map and Earth’s surface. 1:24,000 or 1/24,000 means that 1 unit (usually an inch) on the map represents 24,000 of the same unit on the ground. This is also called the RF scale or representative fraction.

9 Topographic map showing RF scale

10 A written (verbal) scale: Describes the relation between map and Earth distances in words. 1 inch equals 1 mile

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12 A graphic scale: Usually a bar line marked to show distance on Earth’s surface.

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16 Map projection: Scientific method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map. Different projections show distortion in: Shape Distance Relative size Direction

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22 Pakistan Map of Kashmir India Map of Kashmir

23 Types of maps Page IX - X in atlas Internet use 1996, 2001, 2007, 2015 Maps helps us visualize info

24 1. Robinson Projection Pro: Useful in displaying information across oceans along longitude lines Con: Shows a larger proportion of water to land than actuality

25 2. Mercator Projection Pro: works for navigation around the Equator Con: area is extremely distorted towards the poles

26 3. Equal Area Projections Azimuthal and Goode’s Interrupted Homolosine Pro: Very little distortion to landmasses Con: Discontinuities in oceanic regions

27 Types of Maps Physical maps show elevation, mountains, rivers, deserts etc…

28 Types of Maps Political maps show countries, cities, capitals, counties.

29 Special purpose maps Maps designed for a special purpose. Highway maps, population maps, etc…

30 Maps have four properties. When you take a round globe and “flatten” it, one or more of these properties will be “distorted.” The properties of maps include: scale distance area direction

31 4. Choropleth maps Applies distinctive colors to represent different quantities or densities Typically on a map of a formal region (political)

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33 5. Dot distribution/Dot Density map Shows distribution using a concentration of dots Each dot represents the same quantity Used for population density

34 6. Isopleth of Isoline maps Used to portray quantities that vary smoothly over a given area Joins locations with the same value Used for climate variables

35 7. Proportional symbol map Portrays numerical quantities Symbols are drawn proportional to the value at that location

36 8. Cartogram Deliberately distort map shapes to achieve special effects

37 Mercator Projection

38 Robinson Projection

39 Equal-Area Projection

40 Azimuthal-Polar

41 MAP PROJECTIONS 3. Draw in these shapes/projections in your notes… and answer the 3 questions for EACH projection A. What is distorted? B. What is the map used for? C. How can you recognize this map? Name

42 U.S. Land Ordinance of divided the country into a system of townships and ranges to facilitate the sale of land in the West

43 Township- square composed of 6 miles/side Principle meridians- north-south lines separating townships Base lines- east- west lines separating townships Section- township is divided into 36 of these, 1 mi by 1 mi Quarter-section-.5 mi by.5 mi or 160 acres, considered a homestead to pioneers

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45 Imaginary lines that run east to west around the globe Measure degrees north and south of the Equator The Equator is at 0 degrees

46 The imaginary line at 0° latitude, or at 0° on an X Axis om/aatlas/newart/ locator/meridian.h tm

47 The steps of a ladder- ladder sounds like latitude- make the latitude lines.

48 Each degree of latitude and longitude is divided into 60 minutes, and each minute divided into 60 seconds

49 Imaginary lines that run from the north pole to the south pole Measure degrees east and west of the Prime Meridian The Prime Meridian is at 0 ° Longitude, or at 0 ° on a Y Axis

50 The imaginary line at 0° longitude om/aatlas/newart/ locator/meridian.h tm

51 If you stretch your body out as LONG as you can make it- this is a longitude line…

52 Always calculate Latitude First North and South of the Equator Then calculate Longitude East and West of the Prime Meridian

53 If you know the latitude and longitude of a place, put one finger on the line of latitude and another on the line of longitude. Bring your fingers together until they meet.

54 Equator Prime Meridian North West North East South EastSouth West

55 USING AN ATLAS OR TEXTBOOK LOCATE THE COORDINATES AND WRITE DONE THE NAME OF THE CITY. 35 N, 140 E


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