GEO HB Menu Globes and Maps Projections Determining Location Reading a Map Physical Maps Political Maps Thematic Maps Geographic Information Systems
Geography Handbook Globes and Maps A globe is a scale model of the Earth that presents the most accurate depiction of geographic information such as area, distance, and direction.globe A printed map is a symbolic representation of all or part of the planet.map
Geography Handbook To create maps that are not interrupted, mapmakers, or cartographers, use mathematical formulas to transfer information from the three- dimensional globe to the two-dimensional map.cartographers From 3-D to 2-D
Geography Handbook A great circle is an imaginary line that follows the curve of the Earth and represents the shortest distance between two points. Great Circle Routes Traveling along a great circle is called following a great circle route.great circle route
Geography Handbook To create maps, cartographers project the round Earth onto a flat surface — making a map projection.map projection Projections Distance, shape, direction, or size may be distorted by a projection. The three basic categories of map projections are planar, cylindrical, and conic. planarcylindricalconic
Geography Handbook Projections (cont.) Planar Projection A planar projection shows the Earth centered in such a way that a straight line coming from the center to any other point represents the shortest distance. Also known as an azimuthal projection, it is most accurate at its center. As a result, it is often used for maps of the Poles.
Geography Handbook Projections (cont.) Cylindrical Projection A cylindrical projection is based on the projection of the globe onto a cylinder. This projection is most accurate near the Equator, but shapes and distances are distorted near the Poles.
Geography Handbook Projections (cont.) Conic Projection A conic projection comes from placing a cone over part of a globe. Conic projections are best suited for showing limited east- west areas that are not too far from the Equator. For these uses, a conic projection can indicate distances and directions fairly accurately.
Geography Handbook Common Map Projections Most general reference world maps are the Winkel Tripel projection. It provides a good balance between the size and shape of land areas as they are shown on the map. Even the polar areas are depicted with little distortion of size and shape.
Geography Handbook Common Map Projections (cont.) An interrupted projection resembles a globe that has been cut apart and laid flat. Goode’s Interrupted Equal-Area projection shows the true size and shape of Earth’s landmasses, but distances are generally distorted.interrupted projection
Geography Handbook Common Map Projections (cont.) The Robinson projection has minor distortions. The sizes and shapes near the eastern and western edges of the map are accurate, and outlines of the continents appear much as they do on the globe. However, the polar areas are flattened.
Geography Handbook Common Map Projections (cont.) The Mercator projection increasingly distorts size and distance as it moves away from the Equator. However, Mercator projections do accurately show true directions and the shapes of landmasses, making these maps useful for sea travel.
Geography Handbook The basic tool for answering the question “Where?” is location. location Determining Location A grid system on maps and globes helps you find exact places on the Earth’s surface.grid system A hemisphere is one of the halves into which the Earth is divided. Most places are located in two of the four hemispheres.hemisphere
Geography Handbook Latitude Lines of latitude, or parallels, circle the Earth parallel to the Equator and measure the distance north or south of the Equator in degrees. The Equator is measured at 0° latitude, while the Poles lie at latitudes 90°N (north) and 90°S (south). Parallels north of the Equator are called north latitude. Parallels south of the Equator are called south latitude.latitude Determining Location (cont.)
Geography Handbook Longitude Lines of longitude, or meridians, circle the Earth from Pole to Pole. These lines measure distance east or west of the Prime Meridian at 0° longitude. Meridians east of the Prime Meridian are known as east longitude. Meridians west of the Prime Meridian are known as west longitude. The 180° meridian on the opposite side of the Earth is called the International Date Line.longitudePrime Meridian Determining Location (cont.)
Geography Handbook The Global Grid Every place has a global address, or absolute location. You can identify the absolute location of a place by naming the latitude and longitude lines that cross exactly at that place. For example, Tokyo, Japan, is located at 36°N latitude and 140°E longitude. For more precise readings, each degree is further divided into 60 units called minutes.absolute location Determining Location (cont.)
Geography Handbook Northern and Southern Hemispheres The diagram shows that the Equator divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Everything north of the Equator is in the Northern Hemisphere. Everything south of the Equator is in the Southern Hemisphere.Northern HemisphereSouthern Hemisphere Determining Location (cont.)
Geography Handbook Eastern and Western Hemispheres The Prime Meridian and the International Date Line divide the Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Everything east of the Prime Meridian for 180° is in the Eastern Hemisphere. Everything west of the Prime Meridian for 180° is in the Western Hemisphere.Eastern HemisphereWestern Hemisphere Determining Location (cont.)
Geography Handbook Reading a Map Title Key Cities Capitals Boundary Lines Scale Bar Compass Rose
Geography Handbook All maps are drawn to a certain scale. Using Scale Scale is a consistent, proportional relationship between the measurements shown on the map and the measurement of the Earth’s surface.Scale
Geography Handbook Using Scale (cont.) Small-Scale Maps A small-scale map, like this political map of France, can show a large area but little detail.
Geography Handbook Large-Scale Maps A large-scale map, like this map of Paris, can show a small area with a great amount of detail. Using Scale (cont.)
Geography Handbook Absolute and Relative Location Absolute location is the exact point where a line of latitude crosses a line of longitude. Relative location is the location of one place in relation to another.Relative location
Geography Handbook Physical Maps A physical map shows the location and the topography, or shape of the Earth’s physical features.physical map topography A study of a country’s physical features often helps to explain the historical development of the country.
Geography Handbook Physical Maps (cont.) Political Features Relief and Elevation Water Features Landforms
Geography Handbook Political Maps A political map shows the boundaries and locations of political units such as countries, states, counties, cities, and towns.political map Many features depicted on a political map are human-made, or determined by humans rather than by nature. human-made Political maps can show the networks and links that exist within and between political units.
Geography Handbook Political Maps (cont.) Nonsubject Area Physical Features Human-Made Features
Geography Handbook Thematic Maps Maps that emphasize a single idea or a particular kind of information about an area are called thematic maps.thematic maps There are many kinds of thematic maps, such as climate, natural vegetation, population density, and economic activities maps.
Geography Handbook Qualitative Maps Qualitative mapsQualitative maps use colors, symbols, lines, or dots to show information related to a specific idea. Such maps are often used to depict historical information. Thematic Maps (cont.)
Geography Handbook Flow-Line Maps Flow-line mapsFlow-line maps illustrate the movement of people, animals, goods, and ideas, as well as physical processes like hurricanes and glaciers. Arrows are usually used to represent the flow and direction of movement. Thematic Maps (cont.)
Geography Handbook Geographic Information Systems Most cartographers use computers with software programs called geographic information systems (GIS).geographic information systems (GIS) A GIS is designed to accept data from different sources — maps, satellite images, printed text, and statistics. Cartographers then program the GIS to process the data and produce maps. This technology allows cartographers to make maps—and change them—quickly and easily.
Vocab11 grid system pattern formed as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one another
Vocab12 hemisphere half of a sphere or globe, as in the Earth’s Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Vocab13 latitude distance north or south from the equator measured in degrees
Vocab14 longitude distance measured by degrees or time east or west from the Prime Meridian
Vocab15 Prime Meridian the meridian of 0 degrees longitude from which other longitudes are calculated
Vocab16 absolute location the exact position of a place on the Earth’s surface
Vocab17 Northern Hemisphere the half of the Earth that lies north of the Equator
Vocab18 Southern Hemisphere the half of the Earth that lies south of the Equator
Vocab19 Eastern Hemisphere the part of Earth east of the Atlantic Ocean including Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa; longitudes 20°W and 160°E often considered its boundaries
Vocab20 Western Hemisphere the part of Earth west of the Atlantic Ocean comprising North and South America and surrounding waters; longitudes 20°W and 160°E often considered its boundaries
Vocab21 scale the size of a picture, plan, or model of a thing compared to the size of the thing itself
Vocab22 relative location location in relation to other places
Vocab23 physical map map that shows the location of natural features such as mountains and rivers; it can also show cities and countries
Vocab24 topography shape of the Earth’s physical features
Vocab25 political map a map that shows the boundaries and locations of political units such as countries, states, counties, cities, and towns
Vocab26 human-made made by humans rather than by nature
Vocab27 thematic maps map that emphasizes a single idea or a particular kind of information about an area
Vocab28 qualitative maps maps that use colors, symbols, lines, or dots to show information related to a specific idea
Vocab29 flow-line maps map that shows the movement of people, animals, goods, ideas, and physical processes like hurricanes and glaciers
Vocab30 geographic information systems (GIS) computer tools for processing and organizing details and satellite images with other pieces of information
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