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Punctuation Dr Gehan M. Anwar Lecturer of English October 6 University.

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1 Punctuation Dr Gehan M. Anwar Lecturer of English October 6 University

2 Punctuation P Punctuation is the system of symbols that we use to separate sentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. E Each symbol is called a "punctuation mark".

3 Punctuation The Value of Punctuation If you are asked to punctuate the following sentence correctly, what punctuation marks you have to use to illustrate your idea? Think of it: woman without her man is nothing

4 Punctuation If you are a man, you may write: If you are a man, you may write: Woman, without her man, is nothing. Woman, without her man, is nothing. If you are a woman, you may write: If you are a woman, you may write: Woman! Without her, man is nothing.

5 Punctuation Mark NameExample : colonYou have two choices: finish the work today or lose the contract., commaI speak English, French and Thai. ; semi-colonI don't often go swimming; I prefer to play tennis.. full stop or period I like English. - hyphenThis is a rather out-of-date book. — dashIn each town—London, Paris and Rome—we stayed in youth hostels. ! exclamation mark "Help!" she cried. "I'm drowning!" ? question markWhere is Shangri-La?

6 Shangri-La is a fictional place described in the 1933 novel Lost Horizon by British author James Hilton. Shangri-La is a fictional place described in the 1933 novel Lost Horizon by British author James Hilton. Shangri-La has become synonymous with Shangri-La has become synonymous with any earthly paradise any earthly paradise a mythical Himalayan utopia a mythical Himalayan utopia a permanently happy land, isolated from the a permanently happy land, isolated from the outside world, of complete bliss, delight and peace. outside world, of complete bliss, delight and peace. The term Shangri-La is frequently cited as a modern reference to Shambhala, a mythical kingdom in Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which was sought by Eastern and Western explorers. The term Shangri-La is frequently cited as a modern reference to Shambhala, a mythical kingdom in Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which was sought by Eastern and Western explorers.Shambhala

7 Punctuation MarkNameExample “ ” double quotation marks "I love you," she said. ‘ ’ single quotation marks 'I love you,' she said. ’ apostropheThis is John's car. ( ) round bracketsI went to Paris (my favourite city) and stayed there for two weeks. [ ] square bracketsThe newspaper reported that the hostages [most of them French] had been released. … ellipsisOne happy customer wrote: "This is the best program...that

8 The colon replaces the relative pronoun (which/that) and the verb ‘to be’. The colon replaces the relative pronoun (which/that) and the verb ‘to be’. The word ‘kinds’ here is a noun, so a colon is used. The word ‘kinds’ here is a noun, so a colon is used. Use the colon when introductory words such as “namely, for example, that is” do not appear. Use the colon when introductory words such as “namely, for example, that is” do not appear. 1- Colons [:] Colons are used [:]: 1. To introduce a strong pause within a sentence. 2. After a complete statement to introduce a series or list of items. e.g. Vitamins are divided into six kinds: A, B, C, D, E and folic acid. Vitamins are divided into six kinds: A, B, C, D, E and folic acid. Complete Statement list of items Complete Statement list of items

9 Colons [:] 3. It separates clauses which could be separate sentences, but which are linked by some relationship in meaning. He was not given a choice: he had to do the assignment. He was not given a choice: he had to do the assignment. 4. Before a comment explaining the previous statement. The circulatory system has two main structures: the heart and the blood vessels. (explanation) The circulatory system has two main structures: the heart and the blood vessels. (explanation) 5. Before a long and formal quotation or a speech When he spoke from the Mount of Olives, Jesus declared: “Blessed are the meek for they shall inherit the earth” (Mt 5:5). (continued)

10 “ quotation -- words that are quoted directly from someone else and not "paraphrased" or put into your own words.”

11 2- Comma [, ] Commas are used: 1. To show a slight pause in a sentence and separate its parts into logical elements. 2. To separate different items in a series or a list. a) coffee, tea, sugar, milk, eggs, butter and salt. b) He had a headache, dizziness and pain in his lower back. c) My favourite sports are football, swimming, boxing and golf. d) Amgad was wearing blue jeans, black shoes, his brand new white shirt, and a brown and green cap. The last two items are usually separated by "and". But if one or both of the last two items are long, a comma may be useful with “and”. (The lightest mark of punctuation inside sentences)

12 Comma [, ] Do not use a comma between two items; use ‘and’ instead. Do not use a comma between two items; use ‘and’ instead. You should wash fruits and vegetables before eating them. You should wash fruits and vegetables before eating them. Use a comma between three or more adjectives or adverbs or where you could use "and". Use a comma between three or more adjectives or adverbs or where you could use "and". I like the old, brown, wooden table. I like the old, brown, wooden table. He ran quickly, quietly and effortlessly. He ran quickly, quietly and effortlessly. It was a short, simple film. (It was a short and simple film.) It was a short, simple film. (It was a short and simple film.) I have a big, black dog. (I have a big and black dog.) I have a big, black dog. (I have a big and black dog.) (continued)

13 Comma [, ] 3. Use a comma for numbers over 999. (Commas separate thousands and periods separate decimals.) (Commas separate thousands and periods separate decimals.) 1,000 (one thousand) 1,000 (one thousand) 1,569 1,569 2,000,000 2,000, (ten and a half) - note the use of the period, not comma (ten and a half) - note the use of the period, not comma. (continued)

14 Comma [, ] 4. Use a comma for some dates: 1. To separate a day from a date: on Monday, 26 August. on Monday, 26 August. 2. To separate a date from a year: on 15 June, on 15 June, After a year that follows a date: July 3, 1995, was the date of my graduation. July 3, 1995, was the date of my graduation. N.B.: Do not use a comma between a month and a year: In November 2010, five staff nurses graduated from the nursing programme. (continued)

15 Comma [, ] 5. Use a comma for addresses, place names and titles following a name: 40, Sefton Road, Manchester 40, Sefton Road, Manchester Los Angeles, California Los Angeles, California Cairo, Egypt Cairo, Egypt Dina Ali, Professor of English. Dina Ali, Professor of English. (continued)

16 Comma [, ] 6. Use a comma before or after direct speech. He said, "I love you." He said, "I love you." "I love you," he said. "I love you," he said. Do not use a comma for reported speech: He told her that he loved her. (reported speech) He told her that he loved her. (reported speech) (continued)

17 Comma [, ] 7. Use a comma after clauses, phrases, or words that come before the main clause : (continued) A. (DC) (MC) After you finish eating, brush your teeth. B. (MC) (DC) Brush your teeth after you finish eating.

18 Comma [, ] 7. Use a comma to separate two independent clauses (sentences) when they are joined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). He didn't want to go, but he went anyway. He didn't want to go, but he went anyway. I want to work as an interpreter, so I am studying Russian at university. I want to work as an interpreter, so I am studying Russian at university. (continued) - If the independent clauses are short and well-balanced, a comma is optional. a comma is optional. She is kind so she helps people. She is kind so she helps people.

19 Comma [, ] 8. Use commas to set off clauses, phrases and words with appositives, parenthetical elements, or an interrupter. (continued) Mona Naser, a pathologist at our hospital, had an accident. Mona Naser, a pathologist at our hospital, had an accident. John Dick, who is Chairman of the company, is quite old. John Dick, who is Chairman of the company, is quite old. Andrew, my wife's brother, cannot come. Andrew, my wife's brother, cannot come. Andrew (my wife's brother) cannot come. Andrew (my wife's brother) cannot come. The objective, to find peace in both countries, is hard to reach. The objective, to find peace in both countries, is hard to reach.

20 Interrupter - a part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the real meaning of the sentence.

21 Comma [, ] 9. Use a comma after an introductory element. (continued) Rushing to catch the flight, he forgot to take his phone. Rushing to catch the flight, he forgot to take his phone. As the year came to an end, he realized the days were getting shorter. As the year came to an end, he realized the days were getting shorter. By evening we were getting worried. (optional) By evening we were getting worried. (optional) After a hefty meal cooked by his host's wife, he went to sleep. After a hefty meal cooked by his host's wife, he went to sleep. After a snack he went to sleep. (optional) After a snack he went to sleep. (optional) A comma is optional for short, simple introductory elements.

22 Comma [, ] 10. Sentence adverbs (however, unfortunately, surprisingly) often require one or two commas, depending on their position in the sentence. (continued) However, Maged did arrive. However, Maged did arrive. Maged, however, did arrive. Maged, however, did arrive. I wanted to go to visit them; however, I did not have the time. I wanted to go to visit them; however, I did not have the time. We were, unfortunately, too late. We were, unfortunately, too late. He had, surprisingly, lost his temper. He had, surprisingly, lost his temper.

23 Comma [, ] 11. An adverbial clause needs a comma when it comes at the beginning of a sentence but not at its end. (continued) If I win the lottery, I will buy a castle. If I win the lottery, I will buy a castle. I will buy a castle if I win the lottery. I will buy a castle if I win the lottery. Here is a list of the words that give you an adverbial clause: [When – While – Where – As – Since – If – Although] [When – While – Where – As – Since – If – Although]

24 Comma [, ] 12. Put a space after a comma. Do not put a space before a comma. Do not put a space before a comma. (continued) xxx, xxx correct xxx,xxx incorrect xxx, xxx

25 Comma [, ] 13. Do not use a comma to separate two complete sentences; use a full stop or semi-colon instead. (continued) Ram wants to go out. Anthony wants to stay home. Ram wants to go out. Anthony wants to stay home. Ram wants to go out, Anthony wants to stay home. Ram wants to go out, Anthony wants to stay home. Tara, Ram and Anthony enjoyed their holiday, which they spent in Rio Claro, Trinidad, from December 17, 2010 to January 6, Unfortunately, although the weather was good, if rather hot, it rained a lot during their last week. Ravi, Tara's uncle, said, "When I was young we had very little rain, but now we have a lot of rain." Ravi, a wealthy, good-looking man, lives in the north of the island.

26 3- Semicolons [ ; ] 1. instead of a full stop - weaker as it cannot be used at the end of a sentence - separate two contrasting sentences closely connected in meaning. Josef likes coffee; Mary likes tea. Ram wants to go out; Anthony wants to stay home. I wanted a cup of coffee, not a glass of milk. (A comma separates contrasting parts of a sentence.)

27 2. To separate 2 clauses, when a second clause explains the first. 3. To mark a long pause in a sentence. 2. Tara is a good speaker; she speaks very clearly. 3. You did your best; now let's hope you pass the exam. It is not correct to use a comma instead of the semi-colon. Semicolons [ ; ] (continued)

28 Rental cars must be returned on time; with a full tank of petrol; in undamaged condition; and at the same location as they were collected from. Semicolons [ ; ] 4. Use a semi-colon as a kind of "super comma" to punctuate mixed and complicated lists of items (words, clauses or phrases). It may combine a series that has commas inside the parts of the series to prevent confusion. To deal with the problem, I talked to my advisor, the chairman and the dean; wrote a petition; and met with the advisory committee. I have been to Cairo, Egypt; Dubai, UAE; Amman, Jordan; and Jedda, KSA. (continued)

29 Full stops are used [. ]: 1. To indicate a strong pause. 2. At the end of a complete sentence. The only common exception when the sentence is a question or an exclamation. 3. After abbreviations (in an abbreviation the last letter of the word and of the abbreviation are not the same): 4. It is not necessary after the initial capital letters ‘with contractions’ (in a contraction the last letter of the word and of the contraction are the same) Full stop [. ]: (The man arrived. He sat down.) Ltd (Limited) Dr (Doctor) St (Saint) Co. (Company) etc. (et cetera) M.P. (Member of Parliament)

30 Application 1: Put a comma where necessary in the following sentences: 1. In March 1997 Dr Noura became a specialist at the Military Hospital. 2. Egypt Jordan Lebanon and other countries found a society for skin specialists in Alexandria Egypt on 7 October A home care service was introduced on 26 May 1986 in this hospital. 4. Ibn Sina a famous Arab scholar wrote more than 200 books during his life time. 5. Red blood cells carry oxygen. However white cells fight bacteria.

31 Answers 1: In March 1997, Dr Noura became a specialist at the Military Hospital Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and other countries found a society for skin specialists in Alexandria, Egypt, on 7 October, A home care service was introduced on 26 May, 1986, at this hospital Ibn Sina, a famous Arab scholar, wrote more than 200 books during his life time Red blood cells carry oxygen. However, white cells fight bacteria.

32 Application 2 Correct 1. I cannot promise to win the race but I will do my best. 2. She who eats a lot is fat. 3. Being very busy he did not have time to talk to me. 4. If you are not going to help don't promise to. 5. Since he arrived late from work he did not have time to cook. 6. Carmen my dearest friend was here yesterday. 7. I wanted to go to visit them however I did not have the time. 8. When I miss class I borrow notes from another student. 9. Standing on the beach John could feel the wind blow. 10. To deal with the problem I talked to my advisor.

33 Answers 2 1. I cannot promise to win the race, but I will do my best. 2. She, who eats a lot, is fat. 3. Being very busy, he did not have time to talk to me. 4. If you are not going to help, don't promise to. 5. Since he arrived late from work, he did not have time to cook. 6. Carmen, my dearest friend, was here yesterday. 7. I wanted to go to visit them; however, I did not have the time. 8. When I miss class, I borrow notes from another student. 9. Standing on the beach, John could feel the wind blow. 10. To deal with the problem, I talked to my advisor.

34 Application 3 Choose the sentence with the correct punctuation. 1. A) You asked for forgiveness, he granted it to you. B) You asked for forgiveness; he granted it to you. C) You asked for forgiveness: he granted it to you. D) You asked for forgiveness he granted it to you. 2. A) We ask; therefore, that you keep this matter confidential. B) We ask, therefore; that you keep this matter confidential. C) We ask, therefore, that you keep this matter confidential. D) We ask: therefore, that you keep this matter confidential. Answers Next

35 Answers 3 1. B) You asked for forgiveness; he granted it to you. Explanation: Use a semicolon in place of a period to separate two sentences where the conjunction has been left out. 2. C) We ask, therefore, that you keep this matter confidential. Explanation: In this sentence, "therefore" is is an interrupter. Use commas to surround interrupters.

36 3. A) The order was requested six weeks ago; therefore, I expected the shipment to arrive by now. B) The order was requested six weeks ago, therefore I expected the shipment to arrive by now. C) The order was requested six weeks ago, therefore, I expected the shipment to arrive by now. D) The order was requested six weeks ago: therefore, I expected the shipment to arrive by now. 4. A) Clothes are often made from synthetic material; for instance, rayon. B) Clothes are often made from synthetic material, for instance, rayon. C) Clothes are often made from synthetic material, for instance: rayon. D) Clothes are often made from synthetic material, for instance; rayon. Answers Next

37 3. A) The order was requested six weeks ago; therefore, I expected the shipment to arrive by now. Explanation: Use a semicolon in place of a period to separate two sentences where the conjunction has been left out. 4. B) Clothes are often made from synthetic material, for instance, rayon. Explanation: Use a comma before introductory words such as “namely, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., for instance” when they are followed by only one item. Use a comma after the introductory word.

38 5. Choose the sentence with the correct punctuation. A If you believe in magic, magical things will happen, but if you do not believe in magic, you will discover nothing to be magical. B If you believe in magic, magical things will happen, but if you do not believe in magic; you will discover nothing to be magical. C If you believe in magic, magical things will happen; but if you do not believe in magic, you will discover nothing to be magical. D If you believe in magic; magical things will happen, but if you do not believe in magic; you will discover nothing to be magical. A) The orchestra, excluding the violin section, was not up to par. B) The orchestra, excluding the violin section; was not up to par. C) The orchestra; excluding the violin section, was not up to par. D) The orchestra excluding the violin section, was not up to par. 6. Choose the sentence with the correct punctuation. Answers Next

39 5. C) If you believe in magic, magical things will happen; but if you do not believe in magic, you will discover nothing to be magical. Explanation: Use the semicolon between two sentences that are joined by a conjunction but already have one or more commas within the first sentence. 6. A) The orchestra, excluding the violin section, was not up to par. Explanation: Use commas to surround an interrupting expression.

40 Application 2 Choose the sentence with the correct punctuation. 7. A) I have been to San Francisco, California, Reno, Nevada, and Seattle, Washington. B) I have been to San Francisco California; Reno Nevada; and Seattle Washington. C) I have been to San Francisco California, Reno Nevada, and Seattle Washington. D) I have been to San Francisco, California; Reno, Nevada; and Seattle, Washington. 8. A) I need a few items at the store, clothespins, a bottle opener, and napkins. B) I need a few items at the store; clothespins, a bottle opener, and napkins. C) I need a few items at the store: clothespins, a bottle opener, and napkins. D) I need a few items at the store clothespins, a bottle opener, and napkins. Answers Next

41 7. D) I have been to San Francisco, California; Reno, Nevada; and Seattle, Washington. Explanation: Use the semicolon to separate units of a series when one or more of the units contain commas. 8. C) I need a few items at the store: clothespins, a bottle opener, and napkins. Explanation: Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list of items when introductory words such as “namely, for example, that is” do not appear.

42 Application 2 Choose the sentence with the correct punctuation. 9. A) I answered the phone; but no one seemed to be on the other end of the line. B) I answered the phone: but no one seemed to be on the other end of the line. C) I answered the phone, but no one seemed to be on the other end of the line. D) I answered the phone but no one seemed to be on the other end of the line. 10. A) I wanted a cup of coffee; not a glass of milk. B) I wanted a cup of coffee, not a glass of milk. C) I wanted a cup of coffee: not a glass of milk. D) I wanted a cup of coffee not a glass of milk. Answers Next

43 9. C) I answered the phone, but no one seemed to be on the other end of the line. Explanation: Use a comma to separate two sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction ("and, but, or, for, nor, yet"). 10. B) I wanted a cup of coffee, not a glass of milk. Explanation: Use a comma to separate contrasting parts of a sentence.


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