Presentation on theme: "Rule #1: DIRECT AND INDIRECT QUOTATIONS A direct quotation represents a person’s exact speech or thoughts. Use quotation marks. An indirect quotation."— Presentation transcript:
Rule #1: DIRECT AND INDIRECT QUOTATIONS A direct quotation represents a person’s exact speech or thoughts. Use quotation marks. An indirect quotation reports only the general meaning of what a person said or thought. Do not use quotation marks. The journalist said, “I expect to be finished with the article before the deadline.” The boys asked, “Can we have some ice cream tonight?” The journalist said that he expected to be finished with the article before the deadline. The boys asked if they could have some ice cream tonight.
Rule #2: CONVERSATIONAL TAGS At the beginning: Mike bragged, “Susie is going to the Homecoming dance with me.” At the end: “Susie is going to the Homecoming dance with me,” Mike bragged. In the middle: “Susie,” Mike bragged, “is going to the Homecoming dance with me.” NOTE THE PLACEMENT OF THE COMMAS.
Rule #3: PUNCTUATING QUOTATION MARKS Always place a comma or a period INSIDE the final quotation mark. The reporter said, “I’m ready if you are.” “I took several pictures of the candidate,” the photographer said.
PUNCTUATING QUOTATION MARKS Place a question mark or an exclamation mark INSIDE the final quotation if the end mark is part of the quotation. Marie asked, “Will we have homework tonight?” Gordon replied, “No way!” Place a question mark or an exclamation mark OUTSIDE the final quotation when it punctuates the main sentence. Did Ms. Singletary really say, “You will have tons of homework tonight”?
THE EXCEPTION to Rule #3… APA Citations “There is a way to be good again” (Hosseini, 2003, p. 7). ○ Notice that the punctuation is OUTSIDE the parenthesis! “Hey Boo!” (Lee, 1961, p. 245). ○ Questions and exclamations go within the quotations!
Rule #4: PUNCTUATING DIALOGUE When writing dialogue, begin a new paragraph with each change of speaker. Keep conversation tags and closely related bits of narration in the paragraph with the quotation. “Jonathan? This is your Aunt Frances. How is everyone?” “Fine, thank you.” “I want to ask one last favor of you. I need a letter from Jack. Do you think you can get it?” “Who is it?” my mother called from the living room. “OK, Aunt Frances,” I said quickly. “I have to go now. We’re eating dinner.”
SPECIAL USES -- TITLES SONGS POEMS SHORT STORIES SINGLE EPISODES OF TV SHOWS CHAPTERS MAGAZINE OR NEWSPAPER ARTICLES OTHER SHORT WORKS “Born in the USA” “The Raven” (by Poe) “A Rose for Emily” “Force of Nature” (from Star Trek: TNG) “Lady in the Cupboard” “Favre Returning to Minnesota; Will He Ever Retire?”
SPECIAL USES – WORDS / PHRASES A WORD THAT IS BEING DISCUSSED A commentary on the times is that the word “honesty” is now preceded by “old- fashioned.” SLANG I’d say that group was really “sweet,” but you might say they were “cool.” WORD IS BEING USED IN A SPECIAL WAY In order to be popular, he works very hard at being “cute.” This electronic lure is really going to “light up” some fish’s life.
SPECIAL USES – QUOTES WITHIN QUOTES Single quotation marks are used to punctuate a quotation within a quotation. Sarah shouted, “I never read ‘The Raven’!” Double and single quotation marks are alternated in three or more layers of quotations. I said, “Did you hear her shout, ‘I never read “The Raven”!’?”