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PHYS 201 Chapter 3 Kinematics in 2-D Equations in 2-D Projectile

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**Lab This Week: Forces and Equilibrium**

Equilibrium: forces balanced Weight: Force due to gravity: Fg = mass*g Balance forces: both in x and y R A B C

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**Equations with Constant Acceleration in 2D **

Note: Near the Earth surface, ‘ay = g’. X y vx = v0x + axt vy = v0y + ayt x = ½ (v0x + vx)t y = ½ (v0y + vy)t x = v0xt + ½ axt2 y = v0yt + ½ ayt2 vx2 = v0x2 + 2 axx vy2 = v0y2 + 2 ayy

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Projectile Motion If an object is launched near Earth (or a planet) surface, then it follows a parabolic path. It is called the projectile motion. E.g. - a bullet fired from a gun - a golf ball - a cargo drops from a plane Note: A rocket generally does not follow a projectile motion because it has its own engine to produce a thrust.

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**Projectile Motion Following factors are concerned:**

How high it travels? (in vertical direction) How far it travels ? (in horizontal direction) How long it takes to travels ? (the same for both vertical and horizontal directions).

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Projectile Motion The horizontal (x) and vertical (y) motions are independent. The horizontal motion has a constant velocity (ax = 0) The vertical motion has a constant acceleration due to gravity (g = m/s2)

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Projectile Motion The horizontal (x) and vertical (y) motions are independent. The horizontal motion has a constant velocity (ax = 0) The vertical motion has a constant acceleration due to gravity (g = 9.8 m/s2)

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**Projectile Motion Cannon**

Cannon

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CLICKER! Ball ‘A’ is dropped from rest. Ball ‘B’ is shot horizontally from the same height and time as ‘A’. Which ball will hit the floor first? Ball A Ball B Both hit at the same time Vertical motion is independent of horizontal motion

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**SHOOTER-DROPPER DEMONSTRATION**

Link: https://shibboleth.ohio.edu/shibboleth-idp/SSO?colcode=ou&brcode=main&shire=https%3A%2F%2Fstreamer.ohiolink.edu%2FShibboleth.sso%2FSAML%2FPOST&time= &target=cookie%3Acd9a85c7&providerId=https%3A%2F%2Fstreamer.ohiolink.edu%2Fshibboleth&

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CLICKER! A cart travels at constant speed along a level track. At a given point, a ball pops straight up from the cart. Which of the following is the best option for the behavior of the ball. The ball will land in front of the cart The ball will land in the cart The ball will land behind the cart The ball at the point on the track where the ball was launched Horizontal motion is independent of vertical motion. In this case, both objects have constant horizontal velocity

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CLICKER! A soccer ball is kicked on a level playing field. It's initial velocity is 20m/s at an angle of 30° above the horizontal. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the speed of the ball? it is a minimum at maximum height it is zero at maximum height it is a minimum just before it lands it is a minimum just after it is kicked it has the same speed throughout the trajectory vx constant. Speed depends on both vx and vy. Smallest speed when vy=0.

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**Ex. 1 A soccer ball is kicked at an initial speed of 20**

Ex. 1 A soccer ball is kicked at an initial speed of 20.0 m/s at 30º angle above the horizontal from ground. a). What are the horizontal and vertical components of the initial velocity? b). How high the ball will reach? c). How long it takes to reach the ground? d). How far it travels? e). What is the speed of the ball at the maximum height?

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CLICKER! A red ball is shot vertically with an initial velocity of 20 m/s. At the same time, a green ball is thrown at an angle of 30 deg. Its vertical component of initial velocity is also 20 m/s. Which ball will arrive to the highest height first? 1). A 2). B 3). Both at the same time.

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Ex 2. Flight time. A red ball is shot vertically with an initial velocity of m/s. At the same time, a green ball is thrown at an angle of 60 deg. Its vertical component of initial velocity is also m/s. Find the time to reach a) maximum height. b) to the ground

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Ex 3. Vertical height. A red ball is shot vertically with an initial velocity of m/s. At the same time, a green ball is thrown at an angle of 60 deg. Its vertical component of initial velocity is also m/s. How high it will be at 1 s?

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Ex 4. A red ball is shot vertically with an initial velocity of m/s. At the same time, a green ball is thrown at an angle of 60 deg. Its vertical component of initial velocity is also m/s. How long it will take to reach m height? Dy = voy t + ½ ayt2 14.72 = t – ½ * 9.81 t2 3 = 4t – t2 t2 -4t +3 = (*) Dy = m v0y = m/s ay = m/s2

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**CLICKER! (4) (3) (5) (6) (2) (1) (7)**

The diagram below shows the motion diagram of a soccer ball. The images are left at 1 second intervals. Ignore air resistance. At which point is the magnitude (size) of the horizontal component of the velocity the greatest? (point (4) represents the maximum height) (4) (3) (5) (8) Points 1 and 7 (9) All Points Same (6) (2) (1) (7)

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CLICKER! How does the magnitude of the vertical component of the velocity compare between points A and B? (1) Points A Greater (2) Point B Greater (3) Both Same (A) (B) At a fixed height magnitude of velocity as it comes down is the same as when it was going up. Directions are different.

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Projectile * Solve ‘x’ and ‘y’ components separately. The ‘x’ and ‘y’ components can be linked via the time, ‘t’, which is the same for both axes. * Dy can be ‘-’ or, ‘+’ or, ‘0’. * vx = v0x = v0 cosq = constant

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**At the top of the path, vy = 0.**

Upward path, vy +. Downward path, vy -.

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**Ex. 5 A soccer ball is kicked at an initial speed of 20**

Ex. 5 A soccer ball is kicked at an initial speed of 20.0 m/s at 30º angle above the horizontal from ground. a). What is the final speed of the ball just before it hits the ground? b). What is the height of the ball at t = 0.8 s? c). What is the speed of the ball at t=0.8s? X y vx = Dx / t vy = v0y + ayt Dy = ½ (v0y + vy)t Dy = v0yt + ½ ayt2 vy2 = v0y2 + 2 ayDy

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**Ex. 6 A firefighter is spraying water on a building**

Ex. 6 A firefighter is spraying water on a building. Water leaves the hose at 35 m/s and an angle of 30° above the horizontal, and hits the roof top of the building. The nozzle of the hose is 1.0m above the ground, and the building is 22m away. a). How much time is required the water to reach the roof top of the building? b). How high is the roof of the building from the ground? c). In what vertical direction is the water traveling when it hits the building? d). What is the speed of the water just before it hits the building? X y vx = Dx / t vy = v0y + ayt Dy = ½ (v0y + vy)t Dy = v0yt + ½ ayt2 vy2 = v0y2 + 2 ayDy

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Projectile * Solve ‘x’ and ‘y’ components separately. The ‘x’ and ‘y’ components can be linked via the time, ‘t’, which is the same for both axes. * Dy can be ‘-’ or, ‘+’ or, ‘0’. * vx = v0x = v0 cosq = constant

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Ex. 7 A water balloon is launched at a speed of 11 m/s from ground level at an angle of 50 degrees above the horizontal toward an innocent bystander who is 1.5m tall and standing 2m away. By how much does the water balloon clear the person's head? How fast is the balloon traveling when it is directly over the person's head? X y vx = Dx / t vy = v0y + ayt Dy = ½ (v0y + vy)t Dy = v0yt + ½ ayt2 vy2 = v0y2 + 2 ayDy If you know ‘t’, you can find ‘Dy’. You can find ‘t’ from horizontal axis.

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Ex. 8 You kick a soccer ball on a distant planet where the acceleration due to gravity is twice that on Earth. Your ball has the same initial velocity (angle and speed) on the two planets. Is flight time for the ball on the planet shorter or longer than Earth? X y vx = Dx / t vy = v0y + ayt Dy = ½ (v0y + vy)t Dy = v0yt + ½ ayt2 vy2 = v0y2 + 2 ayDy

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Ex. 9 In shooter dropper experiment, a steel ball is shot horizontally from 2 m above the ground. If the initial speed of the ball is 20 m/s, a) how long it takes the ball to reach the ground? b) where it will hit the ground (how far it travels)? c) what is its final speed just before it hits the ground? X y vx = Dx / t vy = v0y + ayt Dy = ½ (v0y + vy)t Dy = v0yt + ½ ayt2 vy2 = v0y2 + 2 ayDy Launch point is at the top of parabolic curve. So v0y = 0, and v0 = v0x.

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Other 2-D Kinematics Problems Ex 10 A plane is landing at a speed of 50m/s and descending at an angle of 20 deg. The plane is 1000m from the runway. As part of a stunt for a movie, a jeep wants to travel directly underneath the plane all the way to the runway. What speed will the jeep need to travel? The ‘x’ component of velocity is the velocity that the jeep needs to travel. Note: The speed = the magnitude of velocity.

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Other 2-D Kinematics Problems Ex 11 A car is traveling 50 mi/hr in a direction 60º North of East. How long will it take to travel 100 mi East? 50 mi/hr N W E S 60º 100 miles

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