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Criminal Trial Adversarial System Trial Initiation

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Presentation on theme: "Criminal Trial Adversarial System Trial Initiation"— Presentation transcript:


2 Criminal Trial Adversarial System Trial Initiation
Prosecution v. defense Two opposing sides. Whoever convinces the jury that they are right. Trial Initiation Speedy Trial - 6th Amendment …the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial…

3 Criminal Trial 6th Amendment – RIGHT TO … impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law…

4 Criminal Trial Jury Selection Voir Dire – questioning of the jury pool
MOST IMPORTANT PART OF THE TRIAL Find out about potential jurors biases. Petit Jury – Hear evidence from both sides and decide the case. 12 people in Criminal Cases.

5 Criminal Trial Challenges Sequestered Juries - no outside contact.
To the Array- The entire jury pool is tainted. For Cause – can’t be fair and impartial – unlimited # Peremptory- no reason needs to be given Death penalty - 15 Felony – 8 Misdemeanor - 3 Sequestered Juries - no outside contact.

6 Criminal Trial Jury Selection
Jury of your peers – not in the Constitution. Interpreted from the equal protection clause.

7 Criminal Trial Jury Selection Cases
Batson v. Kentucky – The attorneys cannot challenge jurors simply based on race. Violates equal protection clause of 14th Amendment. Powers v. Ohio – A defendant can object to the race based challenges to the jury even if he/she is not the same race as the excluded jurors.

8 Criminal Trial Opening statement Prosecution is first
Inform the jury of the nature and facts of the case. Defense is second Deny the prosecution has a case. Theory of the defense. Only mention evidence/proof that will be offered.

9 Criminal Trial Opening Statement When does an opening statement occur?
Who gives it? Who is the attorney addressing during the opening statement? Which side goes first? What does the opening statement do? What does the opening statement include?

10 Criminal Trial What is the goal for your side?
Guilty verdict Not Guilty Verdict What facts are most helpful to that goal? What facts are most harmful to that goal? What are the three most important facts to mention? Motive? Forensic evidence? Witnesses? What legal information is important? Elements? Burden of Proof?

11 Criminal Trial Opening Statement Keep it simple
Talk about the case in broad terms – theme Remember the jury is the audience. Tell a story that paints the picture of your side Pick the most helpful facts for your side or the most harmful to the other side.

12 Criminal Trial – Opening Stmt.
6 things to include: Theme/Theory of the case Character sketch of the main people Identity of the major witnesses Description of the witnesses’ testimony Important legal elements Conclusion requesting a certain verdict

13 Criminal Trial Evidence Direct Evidence
Evidence that if believed directly proves a fact. Circumstantial Evidence (Indirect) Requires the trier of fact to make inferences. Real Evidence Physical Evidence – Tire Tracks, Ransom Notes, fingerprints.

14 Criminal Trial Witnesses Testimony – oral evidence given by a witness.
Witness must be sworn in. Direct examination – open ended questions. Where were you on the night of October 31, 2007? What happened? Allow the witness to tell the story. Done by the person who called the witness to testify.

15 Criminal Trial Cross Examination – “Yes or No” Questions Test the credibility or memory of the witness. Done by the opposing side. The one that didn’t call that particular witness. Hearsay – a statement, other than the one made by the declarant while testifying at the trial or hearing, offered in evidence to prove the truth of the matter asserted. There are several exceptions

16 Criminal Trial Exceptions to the hearsay rule Excited Utterance
Dying Declaration Past recollection recorded

17 Criminal Trial Hearsay???
Alexis is accused of robbing the local convenient store. There is no video of the robbery. Matt is the store clerk. Elena was in the store at the time of the robbery. At the time of trial the Matt testifies that after the robber left, Elena said that was my high school friend Alexis. Elena was not subpoenaed to testify at trial.

18 Criminal Trial Hearsay???
Kelly is charged with shooting and killing her husband, Michael. A neighbor, Hannah, testifies that Kelly and Michael’s daughter, Paige, ran out of the house after gunshots were fired and yelled “My mom just shot my dad!” Paige refuses to testify.

19 Criminal Trial The EMT that came to the scene testifies that as Michael took his last breath he said, Why would my lovely wife do this to me? He died moments later. Hearsay?

20 Criminal Trial Hearsay???
A witness to the Robbery at the convenience store gave a statement to the police right after the crime. At the trial, the witness can’t remember what she saw. She is shown the statement she gave police to refresh her memory. Is the statement hearsay??

21 Criminal Trial Closing Argument Prosecution then Defense
Prosecution has rebuttal – they have the burden of proof. Last minute attempt to persuade the jury. Sum up the evidence and how each element was proven or disproven.

22 Criminal Trial Jury Instructions Instruct on the law.
Instruct on the elements of the crime Each side (Pros. And Def.) can usually provide the court with instructions they want. i.e. lesser included offenses Instruct that if the defendant chooses not to testify – the jury can’t use that against him/her.

23 Criminal Trial Jury Deliberations/ Verdict Must be Unanimous
Four types - generally Not Guilty Guilty Guilty but Mentally Ill Not Guilty by reason of insanity Jury Nullification- Even though the defendant is guilty, the jury finds him/her not guilty for some unknown reason.

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