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Criminal Justice Process

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Presentation on theme: "Criminal Justice Process"— Presentation transcript:

1 Criminal Justice Process
The Trial

2 Due Process of Law

3 Due Process of Law Every citizen is entitled to due process of law
The idea that laws and legal proceedings must be fair The Constitution guarantees that the government cannot take away a person’s basic rights to “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law” Procedures followed by law enforcement/ courts must protect an individual's rights as set out in the Constitution

4 Due Process of Law Accused people are entitled
to have a jury trial in public without undue delay to be informed of their rights and of the charges against them to confront and cross-examine witnesses to compel witnesses to testify on their behalf to refuse to testify against themselves to be represented by an attorney

5 Jury Nullification Early in our history, judges often informed jurors of their nullification right.  For example, our first Chief Justice, John Jay, told jurors: "You have a right to take upon yourselves to judge [both the facts and law]."  Do You agree with Jay?

6 Right to Trial by Jury

7 Right to a Trial by Jury Is guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment
However, a jury is not required in every case, and most trials proceed without one Defendants can waive (give up) their right to a jury trial Defendant may choose a "bench trial"

8 Bench Trial

9 Bench Trial The judge performs the fact-finding function of the jury
The defendant might choose a bench trial rather than a jury trial if: - the case involves technical legal issues that a jury might not easily understand - the defendant fears that a jury may be inflamed by the nature of the charges - the defendant believes the jury will be unable to judge the evidence in the case objectively

10 Jury Selection Process

11 Jury Selection Process
Members of the jury are selected through a process called voir dire (to speak the truth) Jury panels selected from voter registration or tax lists (aim to be representative of the community)

12 Juror Challenges For-cause challenge allows a potential juror to be eliminated for a specific reason (the juror knew the defendant or the victim in the case) Peremptory challenge allows an attorney to exclude a limited number of jurors without giving a reason U.S. Supreme Court has ruled in a number of cases that a juror may NOT be excluded on the basis of race

13 In this tense jury argues a case in a stuffy room on a hot summer's day. Eleven say "guilty!" But one holdout (Juror #3) is convinced of the defendant's innocence and stubbornly argues "reasonable doubt." This tense courtroom drama is a remake of Sidney Lumet's 1957 favorite

14 LATE WORK REMINDER ALL late work (class and homework assignments) must be submitted by this Wednesday at the end of school for inclusion in Term 2 grade.

15 Twelve Angry Men As you view this movie – THINK ABOUT the role of doubt in deciding whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty THINK ABOUT doubt vs. “reasonable doubt” If you were the defendant in this case, would you want this jury to be your jury to decide your fate?

16 Right to a Speedy and Public Trial

17 Right to a Speedy and Public Trial
Sixth Amendment - defendants given a right to a speedy trial in all criminal cases Otherwise an innocent person might be denied fundamental liberties while awaiting trial in jail for something he or she did not do Case may be dismissed if the person does not receive a speedy trial Defendants can waive, or give up, this right for more time to prepare

18 Right to Compulsory Process

19 Right to Compulsory Process
Defendants in a criminal case have a right to compulsory process for obtaining witnesses This means that the defendant can get a subpoena (court order) requiring a witness to appear in court to testify Without this right, defendants would have difficulty establishing a defense

20 Right to Confront Witnesses

21 Right to Confront Witnesses
The Sixth Amendment provides the accused with the right to confront witnesses against them and to ask questions (cross examination) The defendant has the right to be present during the trial However, judges have the power to remove any defendant if he/she becomes disorderly The defendant can be held for contempt of court (any act to embarrass, hinder, or obstruct the court)

22 Freedom from Self-incrimination

23 Freedom from Self-Incrimination
This right comes from the Fifth Amendment Means that you cannot be forced to testify against yourself in a criminal trial This right can be waived when a defendant takes the witness stand (now must answer all questions) If granted immunity (freedom from prosecution) a person MUST answer all questions – even those that are incriminating

24 Right to an Attorney

25 Right to an Attorney This right is provided in the Sixth Amendment
As a result of Supreme Court decision (Gideon v Wainwright), criminal indigent defendants (cannot afford an attorney) are appointed one by the state free of charge

26 5th Amendment’s Double Jeopardy
The Fifth Amendment’s double jeopardy language means … a defendant cannot be prosecuted a second time for the same offense after either an acquittal or a conviction

27 Steps in A Trial

28 Opening Statement At the start of the trial, each side (prosecutor and defense) explains what it expects to prove or disprove and how they intend to do that

29 State Presents its Case
Prosecution‘s Direct Examination of Their Witnesses Calls the witnesses for their side Asks questions of the witness Questions based on the facts the witness has to offer Defense's Cross-examination of the Prosecution's Witnesses Defense attorney tries to get the other side's witness to admit something that will help his or her client May also try to show that a witness is not credible or dependable

30 Defense Presents its Case
Defense's Direct Examination of Their Witnesses Defendant's attorney calls the witnesses for their side Prosecution's Cross-examination of the Defense's Witnesses Prosecutor tries to get the other side's witness to admit something that will help their case May also try to show that a witness is not dependable

31 Closing Arguments Each attorney sums up the main points that help their case The prosecuting attorney is the first to present the main points The defendant's attorney then makes an argument Finally, the prosecuting attorney has a chance to react the defense's comment This is called rebuttal

32 Judge's Instructions to the Jury
The judge explains to the jury what the principles of law are in the case He or she asks the jury to make a fair decision about the case

33 Jury Deliberations The jury leaves the courtroom and goes to a separate to discuss the case The jury talks about and makes a decision in the case Once the jury makes a decision, it reports back to the courtroom The judge announces the verdict If the defendant waived a jury trial, the judge issues a verdict

34 The Verdict Verdict - a jury's decision on a case
In most states, a unanimous decision is required one way or the other If the jury cannot reach a unanimous decision, it is said to be a hung jury, and the case may be tried again The judge will declare a mistrial If the verdict is guilty, the defendant may have a right to appeal if an error of law has been committed

35 Criminal Appeals Defendant found guilty is entitled to an appeal
Many potential grounds for an appeal (error of law) may include: - Allowing inadmissible evidence - Mistakes in the judge's instructions to the jury - Misconduct on behalf of the jurors

36 Can prejudice obscure justice?


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