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Chapter One Introduction to Forensics Science Forensic Science and the Law “In school, every period ends with a bell. Every sentence ends with a period.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter One Introduction to Forensics Science Forensic Science and the Law “In school, every period ends with a bell. Every sentence ends with a period."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter One Introduction to Forensics Science

3 Forensic Science and the Law “In school, every period ends with a bell. Every sentence ends with a period. Every crime ends with a sentence.” —Stephen Wright, comedian

4 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company2 A. Forensic Science  A study and application of science to law  provide accurate, thorough info to decision makers in our criminal justice system.  Comes from Latin “forensis” = forum, a public place where, in Roman times, senators and others debated and held judicial proceedings.  Video Video

5 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company3 Criminalistics vs Criminology Criminalistics  the scientific examination of physical evidence for legal purposes. Criminology  includes the psychological angle, studying the crime scene for motive, traits, and behavior that will help to interpret the evidence

6 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company4 Crime Lab—Basic Services  Physical Science Unit  Chemistry  Physics  Geology  Biology Unit  Anything that deals with the human body  Firearms Unit (Ballistics)  Document Examination Unit  Photography Unit

7 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company5 Crime Lab—Optional Services  Toxicology Unit- poisons  Latent Fingerprint Unit- hidden  Polygraph Unit  Voiceprint Analysis Unit  Evidence Collection Unit

8 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company6 Other Forensic Science Services  Forensic Pathology- diseases  Forensic Anthropology- bodies  Forensic Entomology- bugs  Forensic Psychiatry- the mind  Forensic Odontology- teeth  Forensic Engineering- structures  Cybertechnology - computers

9 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company7 Major Crime Laboratories  FBI- Federal Bureau of Investigation  DEA- Drug Enforcement Agency  ATF- Bureaus of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms  U.S. Postal Service  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

10 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company8 Crime Lab History  Arthur Conan Doyle write Sherlock Holmes  Video- The Great Mouse DetectiveThe Great Mouse Detective  Sherlock Holmes (2009) Sherlock Holmes (2009)  First crime lab in the world - France in 1910 by Edmond Locard  First crime lab in U.S in Los Angeles  The Scientific Crime Detection Lab was founded in 1929 as a result of the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre The Scientific Crime Detection Lab  The first FBI crime lab opened in 1932 with the help of Dr. Calvin Goddard  Video Video

11 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company9 Major Developments in Forensic Science History  700s AD—Chinese used fingerprints to establish identity of documents and clay sculptures  ~1000—Roman courts determined that bloody palm prints were used to frame a man in his brother’s murder  1149—King Richard of England introduced the idea of the coroner to investigate questionable death  1200s—A murder in China is solved when flies were attracted to invisible blood residue on a sword of a man in the community  1598—Fidelus was first to practice forensic medicine in Italy  1670—Anton Van Leeuwenhoek constructed the first high-powered microscope  1776—Paul Revere identified the body of General Joseph Warren based on the false teeth he had made for him  1784—John Toms convicted of murder on basis of torn edge of wad of paper in pistol matching a piece of paper in his pocket  Mathew Orfila helps convict a criminal of poisoning

12 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company10 Major Developments in Forensic Science History  1859—Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen developed the science of spectroscopy.  1864—Crime scene photography developed  1879—Alphonse Bertillon developed a system to identify people using particular body measurements  Francis Galton ID’s fingerprint categories  1896—Edward Henry developed first classification system for fingerprint identification  1900—Karl Landsteiner identified human blood groups  1904—Edmond Locard formulated his famous principle, “Every contact leaves a trace.”  Locard develops the first crime lab  1922—Francis Aston developed the mass spectrometer.  1959—James Watson and Francis Crick discover the DNA double helix  1977—AFIS developed by FBI, fully automated in 1996  1984—Jeffreys developed and used first DNA tests to be applied to a criminal case  Turn to pages 4,5,6

13 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company11 People of Historical Significance Edmond Locard ( )  French professor and police officer  Considered the father of criminalistics  Built the world’s first forensic laboratory in France in 1910  Locard Exchange Principle  Whenever two objects come into contact with each other, traces of each are exchanged.

14 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company12 Locard in Action Pretend you have two children and a cat. You run out to take care of some errands that include stopping at a furniture store, the laundry and the house of a friend who has one child and a dog. What are some things you could leave behind at each stop? What are some things you might collect? Discuss…

15 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company13 In many cases, the mere fact that a suspect can be placed at the scene is an indication of guilt. Examples? Fingerprints Semen obtained from a rape kit Paint from the fender of a car

16 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company14 B. The Titles Criminalist: Those who deal with the forensic evidence Not cops! Don’t carry guns, don’t interrogate suspects or make arrests Don’t treat the injured or dead They just collect evidence. That’s it! Forensic Investigator: Those who deal with the body (if there is one) Video

17 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company15 Common Jobs for a Criminalist CSI: collect, protect, transport evidence, document and sketch, photograph Print examiner: specialize in fingerprints Firearms examiner: examining and identifying firearms, bullets, shell casings and GSR Toolmark examiner: it is what it is… Document examiner Trace evidence examiner: analyze and compare hair, figbers, glass, soils and paints

18 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company16 Common Jobs for a Forensic Investigator Pathologist: physician with specialty training in diseases; in charge of body and evidence on it Anthropologist: human skeletal remains to determine age, sex and race of body and establish TOD; toxicology, too Odontologist: id’s unknown corpses by matching dental records Entomologist: uses life cycles of flies and insects that feed on corpses to determine the approximate time of death, also determine whether a body has been moved Psychiatrist: address sanity, give medical advice Serologist: deals with blood and bodily fluids Toxicologist: study of drugs and poisons (DWIs, etc) Botanist: examines plant residues to help solve a crime

19 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company17 Coroner Vs. Medical Examiner Coroner: appointed or elected position that requires no special medical skills; it’s a political position; some are doctors Medical Examiner: physician, licensed to practice medicine and trained in pathology

20 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company18 C. US Laws  The U.S. Constitution  Statutory Law  Common Law or Case Law  Civil Law  Criminal Law  Equity Law  Administrative Law

21 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company19 Laws 1. Constitution- governs our country 2. Statutory Laws- “law on the books”; based on the constitution, made by govn’t 3. Common Law- made by judges; application of the law 4. Civil Law- relationships between individuals, assign blame: marriage, property, contracts

22 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company20 Laws… 5.Criminal Law- enforcement of rights; offensive to society; the state becomes the plaintiff – person offended Example: The People Vs. Larry Flint Example: The State of Wisconsin Vs. Yoder Misdemeanor- minor crime: theft, small amt of drugs Felony- major crime: murder, rape, armed robbery, drugs Jail time 6.Equity Law- preventive: restraining order 7.Administrative Law- rules established by gov’t agencies: taxes, social security, military

23 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company21 The Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments to the Constitution Developed shortly after the constitution because of the memory of loss of civil rights in England Bill of Rights Most famous: Right to free speech Right to assemble peacefully Right to bear arms

24 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company22 Bill of Rights and FS- Assures an individual’s right:  To be presumed innocent until proven guilty  Not to be searched unreasonably  Not to be arrested without probable cause  Against unreasonable seizure of personal property  Against self-incrimination  To fair questioning by police  To protection from physical harm throughout the justice process  To an attorney  To trial by jury  To know any charges against oneself  To cross-examine prosecution witnesses  To speak and present witnesses  Not to be tried again for the same crime  Against cruel and unusual punishment  To due process  To a speedy trial  Against excessive bail  Against excessive fines  To be treated the same as others, regardless of race, gender, religious preference, country of origin, and other personal attributes

25 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company23 Steps to Justice 1. Crime committed, discovered 2. Police investigate 3. ID suspect 4. Crime scene documented 5. Info is given to prosecutor 6. Investigation Probable cause-arrest warrant (situation concluding that a crime was committed by the suspect)

26 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company24 Miranda v Arizona  In 1963, Ernesto Miranda, a 23 year old mentally disturbed man, was accused of kidnapping and raping an 18-year-old woman in Phoenix, Arizona. He was brought in for questioning, and confessed to the crime. He was not told that he did not have to speak or that he could have a lawyer present. At trial, Miranda's lawyer tried to get the confession thrown out, but the motion was denied. The case went to the Supreme Court in The Court ruled that the statements made to the police could not be used as evidence, since Mr. Miranda had not been advised of his rights.

27 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company25 Miranda Rights The following is a minimal Miranda warning:  You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to speak to an attorney, and to have an attorney present during any questioning. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at the government’s expense.

28 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company26 After Miranda 1. Brought to judge 2. Arraignment: defendant hears charges and enters a plea- guilty, not guilty, nolo contendere (no contest) Not admitting guilt, but doesn’t say they are innocent Subjects them to conviction, but maybe be used in conjunction with a plea bargin 3. If Guilty plea - taken to court preliminary hearing, no jury, pass sentence 3. If Not Guilty Plea- judge decides if trial, bail 4. Sometimes Grad jury- big felonies; no judge, panel of judges that vote; if trial- indictement

29 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company27 Types of Crimes 1. Infraction- less petty than a misdemeanor 2. Misdemeanor 3. Felony

30 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company28 Federal Rules of Evidence In order for evidence to be admissible, it must be:  Probative—actually prove something  Material—address an issue that is relevant to the particular crime  Hearsay is not admissible because it is not reliable

31 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company29 Testimony Expert Witness Frye Standard: Applies to new science, states: evidence is admissible if the method which it was obtained is based on acceptance from the scientific community Daubert Ruling: Revision of the Frye Standard, evidence must follow the scientific method Changing technology; lots of junk science (theories based on untested hypothesis)

32 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company30 Facets of Guilt Try to prove:  Means —person had the ability to do the crime  Motive —person had a reason to do the crime (not necessary to prove in a court of law)  Opportunity —person can be placed at the crime

33 Chapter 1 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company31 “If the Law has made you a witness, remain a man (woman) of science. You have no victim to avenge, no guilty or innocent person to ruin or save. You must bear testimony within the limits of science.” —P.C.H. Brouardel

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