2 Learning ObjectivesDescribe how the scientific method is used to solve forensic problems.Provide examples of the growth and development of forensic science through history.Understand the relationship between our legal system and prosecution of criminals.
3 What is forensic science? The study and the application of science to matters of law.
4 CriminologyIncludes the psychological angle: studying the crime scene for motive, traits, and behavior that will help to interpret the evidence
5 So what does a crime lab look like? Physical science unitChemistryPhysicsGeologyBiology unitFirearms and ballistics unitDocument examination unitPhotography unitThe most common types of evidence examined are drugs, firearms, and fingerprints.
6 What specialties are found in a crime lab? Forensic pathologyForensic anthropologyForensic entomologyForensic psychiatryForensic odontologyForensic engineeringCybertechnologyGeologyEnvironmental sciencePalynologyPolygraphyVoiceprint analysis
8 Federal Crime Labs FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation DEA: Drug Enforcement AgencyATF: Alcohol, Tobacco, and FirearmsUSPS: United States Postal ServiceU.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceDepartment of Homeland SecurityDepartment of the Treasury
9 Scientific Method in forensic science Observe a problem or questioned evidence and collect objective data.Consider a hypothesis or possible solution.Examine, test, and then analyze the evidence.Determine the significance of the evidence.Formulate a theory based on evaluation of the significance of the evidence.
10 The Locard’s Principle Locard's principle holds that the perpetrator of a crime will bring something into the crime scene and leave with something from it, and that both can be used as forensic evidence.
11 Criminal justice and the law Statutory law passed by bodies such as Congress. Based on the Constitution.Common law based on judicial opinions or precedentsCivil law based on non criminal suits to preserve individual or civil rightsCriminal law concerned with offenses against an individual that are not acceptable to societyMisdemeanor = minor crime – minor possession of drugsFelony = major crime such as murder
12 The Bill of Rights Guarantees; Presumed innocent until proven guiltyNot to be searched unreasonablyNot to be arrested without probable causeAgainst unreasonable seizure of personal propertyAgainst self-incriminationTo fair questioning by policeTo protection from physical harm throughout the justice processTo an attorneyTo trial by juryTo know any charges against oneself
13 Steps in pursuing justice Miranda rights – police must inform arrestees that they have the right to remain silent and a right to an attorney.Steps involved in court casesArraignment – defendant hears charges and enters pleaEvidentiary hearing – evidence presented and charges filed or dismissed.Grand jury decides whether to indictPlea bargain – a defendant pleads guilty in return for a lesser charge
14 Admissibility of Evidence Evidence must be probative (must prove something. Hearsay is inadmissible.The Daubert Ruling – used mostly in federal courtsThe judge decides if the evidence can be entered into the trial. Admissibility is determined by:Whether the theory or technique can be testedWhether the science has been offered for peer reviewWhether the rate of error is acceptableWhether the method at issue enjoys widespread acceptanceWhether the theory or technique follows standards
15 Key Vocabulary terms Criminalistics Probable cause Evidence Miranda rightsForensics ArraignmentPathology Grand juryEntomology IndictOdontology ProbativeToxicology ArsonLocard Principle HearsayCriminal law Expert witnessCivil Law Frye StandardMisdemeanor Daubert ruling/Junk scienceFelony