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Instructional Strategies ICT Immersive Training Workshop June 7, 2011 Brenda Sugrue Do not distribute without permission.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructional Strategies ICT Immersive Training Workshop June 7, 2011 Brenda Sugrue Do not distribute without permission."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructional Strategies ICT Immersive Training Workshop June 7, 2011 Brenda Sugrue Do not distribute without permission

2 Agenda Introduction Framework: What, When, How Examples Current and Future State Analysis Discussion Appendix 2

3 What are instructional strategies? What are the most popular instructional strategies in Army training programs? 3

4 Instructional ElementInstructional Strategies Overviews Goals (learning outcomes; performance objectives Value (inoculation against low motivation) Context: connect to big picture/framework/program/curriculum Prior Knowledge: activate/connect to prior knowledge (story, example, analogy, ask mobilization questions) Presentation Examples Conceptual: Examples, Stories, Cases Procedural: Worked examples, step-by-step demonstrations of task performance (actions and decisions) Information Verbal and visual descriptions, presentations, and explanations of facts, concepts, principles, processes, and procedures to build declarative knowledge components (what, why, when, how) Need to know in order to do practice activities (not “nice to know”) Practice and Feedback Prompt, tools, and response to elicit performance to develop procedural knowledge Rules/rubrics to diagnose errors and prescribe feedback/adaptation/guidance Feedback/adaptation/guidance to correct errors Part to whole task Assessment Prompt, tools, and response to elicit performance to assess mastery/acquisition of knowledge components – cognitively authentic assessments Rubrics to score/rate level of performance (for open-ended responses) Knowledge Integration Opportunities to self-explain, discuss, present, describe or select their reasoning about interconnections among knowledge components, for example the principle(s) that justify the application of a procedure. Motivation Inoculation, and monitoring/guidance to optimize Value beliefs Self-efficacy beliefs Attribution beliefs Mood/Emotion Instructional Strategies for Instructional Elements 4

5 When do/should we decide on instructional strategies? DADDIE Output QA 5

6 Knowledge Type Presentation Practice/Assessment RememberUse Procedure list of steps, demonstration recognize, recall, or reorder the steps decide when to use; perform the steps; critique performance or output of performance Factthe fact recognize or recall the fact Concept the definition, critical attributes, examples, non-examples recognize, recall, or explain the definition or attributes identify, classify, or create examples Principle the principle/rule, examples, analogies, stories recognize, recall, or explain the principle decide if principle applies; predict an event; apply the principle to solve a problem or make decisions Process/ System description of stages, diagram, inputs, outputs, examples, stories recognize, recall, explain, or reorder the stages identify origins of problems; troubleshoot; predict events; solve problems in the process How do we decide what instructional strategies to use for presentation and practice? 6 Merrill, D. (1983). Component Display Theory. In C. M. Reigeluth (ed), Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current States. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

7 Examples Public hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/ /120072/bio13.swf::Photosynthetic %20Electron%20Transport%20and%20ATP%20Synthesishttp://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/ /120072/bio13.swf::Photosynthetic %20Electron%20Transport%20and%20ATP%20Synthesis Kaplan Concept Course Prototype Kaplan University Redesign Kaplan Test Prep 7

8 Public Examples 8

9 Kaplan Examples 9

10 Activity: Current State – Instructional Strategies Instructional Element % of training Most Used Strategies Classroom (Instructor/Media/Other) Online (Syncnronous/Asynchronous) Offline (Print, On the Job) Overviews Information Examples/Demonstration Practice/Assessment Feedback Motivation Knowledge Integration % of training Benefits and Concerns 10

11 Activity: Future State – Instructional Strategies Instructional Element % Training Most Used Strategies Classroom (Instructor/Media/Other) Online (Syncnronous/Asynchronous) Offline (Print, On the Job) Overviews Information Examples/Demonstration Practice/Assessment Feedback Motivation Knowledge Integration % Training Benefits and Concerns 11

12 Appendix 12

13 Evidence-based principles drive design PrincipleDesign Actions Task- centeredness Include authentic tasks that represent the domain/learning outcomes Activation Connect to learner’s prior experience/ knowledge/larger knowledge structure Demonstration Demonstrate and give examples of correct performance Application Provide part-task and whole-task practice with corrective feedback Integration Deepen knowledge with opportunities for reflection, discussion, public performance, exploration of real life uses Merrill, M. D. “First Principles of Instruction,” In C. M. Reigeluth & A. Carr (Eds.), Instructional Design Theories and Models III (Vol. III), 2009 First Principles of Instruction PrincipleDesign Actions MultimediaUse words and graphics rather than words alone Contiguity Place printed words near corresponding graphics; Synchronize spoken words with corresponding graphics ModalityPresent words as audio narration rather than on-screen text RedundancyExplain visuals with words in audio OR text, not both Coherence Avoid interesting but unnecessary material; avoid extraneous audio, graphics, words Personalization Use conversational rather than formal style; Use effective on-screen coaches; Make the author visible SegmentingBreak content into bite-size segments Pre-trainingTeach key concepts prior to procedures or processes Examples Transition from worked examples to problems via fading; Promote self- explanation of worked-out steps; Supplement worked examples with explanations Practice Mirror the job; Provide explanatory feedback; Adapt the amount and placement of practice to job performance requirements; Transition from examples to practice gradually CollaborationInsufficient evidence for guidelines on social learning Learner Control/ Navigation Give experienced learners control; Make important instructional events the default; Consider adaptive control; Give pacing control Build Thinking Skills Use job-specific cases; Make thinking processes explicit; Define job-specific problem-solving processes Games and Simulations Match game type to learning goals; Make learning essential to progress; Build in guidance; Promote Reflection on correct answers; Manage complexity Source: E-learning and the Science of Instruction, Clark and Mayer, 2 nd ed., 2008 E-Learning and Multimedia Design Principles 13

14 Individual Differences that matter Prior Knowledge -influences AMOUNT of support needed for knowledge acquisition -the learning objective influences the TYPE of support (type of practice/assessment, examples, information) Motivational State -influences type and amount of inoculation and intervention to optimize perceived value, self-efficacy, attribution, and mood Metacognitive Ability -influences amount of structure and guidance needed for planning, monitoring, selecting, connecting 14

15 Implications of Stages of Learning for Design Stage 1: Declarative -Design clear, relevant, and accurate information displays, job aids, examples, reference material for all knowledge components: facts, concepts, principles, processes, procedures Stage 2: Procedural -Design practice tasks to elicit student performance/responses; monitoring systems to detect errors; and feedback/coaching to correct errors in performance Stage 3: Automated -Design opportunities for repeated frequent practice on the job and monitoring of speed and accuracy 15

16 Motivation theory informs motivation guidance Sources: Bandura; Eccles & Wigfield; Pintrich & Schunk; Clark; Dweck Self-Efficacy Effort HighModerateLow Motivation LowHigh Perfor- mance Highxx Lowxx Low performance can stem from 4 different beliefs. Depending on the diagnosis/root cause, the treatment (guidance) will be different. 16

17 Rules for motivation monitoring and guidance VariableDataConditionIntervention PerformancePractice and Tests If low …Explanation of errors and recommendation display of additional examples and practice + motivational guidance If highAcknowledge and attribute to effort (no need to investigate motivation) Low Performance: Investigate and treat motivational causePersuasionModelingCognitive Dissonance Perceived Value Course survey If low… Explain and give example of the value of the course Describe or show video of admired role models expressing how they value it Present situation that shows value Unit SurveyIf low … Self-efficacyUnit Survey, Periodic Question If low …Explain why student should have more confidence Introduce student to someone like them who became more confidence Give easier practice activity or point out successful performance – they can do it! If high …Explain that the material is difficult and student will need to invest more effort Introduce role model who will attest to difficulty of the material Engineer failure or point out low performance – harder practice activity– see this is touch and requires effort Attribution (perceived cause of success and failure) Follow-up question (if performance low and self- efficacy low) If low performance attributed to uncontrollable cause Provide guidance to reattribute to controllable cause - effort Introduce role model with correct attribution to tell their story Propose alternative cause If low performance attributed to controllable cause Reinforce the controllable cause (effort) and focus on increasing self-efficacy. StartingLog In (time stamp) If new outcome not started by X date … Send notificationShare story of someone like them and how they got started Show data on successful students PersistingTime spent (time stamps) If persistence lowSuggest more effortShow role model with success storyShow data from successful students – how much time they spent studying 17


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