2 Lecture OutlinePurpose: To understand what is reported off of the balance sheet, why items are not reported on the balance sheet, and what risks off-balance sheet accounting poses.Off-Balance-Sheet Accounting IntroductionOff-Balance-Sheet ItemsLoan commitment agreementLetters of creditFutures, forward contracts, swaps, and optionsWhen issued securitiesLoans soldMore on Loan Sales
7 Off-Balance-Sheet (OBS) Assets/Liabilities What are off-balance-sheet assets/liabilities?Contingent assets and liabilities that affect the future, rather than current, shape of an FI’s balance sheet.ContingentThey are not assets/liabilities yetThey are promises to issue assets or take on a new liability if an event occursIn accounting terms, they usually appear “below the bottom line”, frequently just as footnotes in the financial statements
8 Off-Balance-Sheet (OBS) Assets/Liabilities (Continued) A commitment to add an asset (Ex: loan) to the balance sheet if a contingent event occurs.OBS Liability:A commitment to add a liability to the balance sheet if a contingent event occurs.Examples:Loan Commitment (Asset): Bank commits to give a company a loan in the futureBank Guarantee (Liability): Bank guarantees against the default of a loan. The bank assumes responsibility for the loan in the case of default.
9 Growth in Off-Balance-Sheet Items $14.4 Trillion
10 Reasons for growth in OBS Activities Increased volatility, giving rise to demand for risk management by companiesBanks’ scope for tailoring financial instrumentsBanks’ interest in saving capital and avoiding reserve requirementsSome government assistance, such as the US government sponsorship of the securitized mortgage market (to allow risks to be diversified where banks were confined to one area)Position value vs Notional amount
11 Banks with large OBS exposure in the Crisis Lehman BrothersBear StearnsMerrill LynchCitigroupCIT GroupFreddie MacFannie Mae- Bankrupt- “Acquired”- “Acquired”- Bailed out- Bankrupt (after bailout)- Conservatorship
12 Is OBS accounting Bad? Insolvency Risk To get a true picture of FI insolvency we need to consider both on and off balance sheet riskOn Balance sheetAssetsLiabilities and EquityMarket value of Assets100Market value of Liabilities90Equity10Including off balance sheet activity, reduces the equity piece and brings the bank closer to insolvencyOn & Off Balance sheetAssetsLiabilities and EquityMarket value of assets100Market value of Liabilities90Market value of contingent claim assets50Equity5Market Value of contingent claim liabilities55150
14 Types of OBS Activities Schedule L : In 1983 banks began to submit “Schedule L,” on which they listed notional size and variety of their OBS activities, as a part of their quarterly reports.FDIC: Schedule LNon-Schedule L:Settlement riskAffiliate Risk
15 Types of Schedule L OBS Activities for U.S. Banks Loan commitment agreementLetters of creditFutures, forward contracts, swaps, and optionsWhen issued securitiesLoans sold
17 1. Loan Commitment Definition Definition – a contractual commitment to make a loan up to a stated amount at a given interest rate in the future.Most loans to businesses and consumers are structured as lines of credit, in which the borrower may decide at any time during the life of the loan to borrow.Banks often charge a fee for making funds available (up-front fee) and also for the unused balance of the commitment at the end of the period (back-end fee).The difference between the amount actually borrowed and the amount committed is not on the balance sheet.
18 1. Loan Commitment Basic Example SampleLoan Commitment TermsAmount = 200MTerm = 1 yearFees:12 bps up front fee8 bps back end feeLoan Commitment TermsAmountLength – (term)FeesPartiesFees = (0.0012)(200M)= $240,000Fees = (0.0008)(30M)= $24,0001m$30M2 m$50M7 m$20M11 m$70M$30M unused0 m12 m$240,000$24,000
21 1. Loan Commitment Interest Rate Risk Interest rate risk – look at the repo rateNegative Margin
22 1. Loan Commitment Interest Rate Risk Interest rate risk – look at a floating rate (Libor +1%)Have we eliminated interest rate risk?Positive Margin
23 1. Loan Commitment Interest Rate Risk Look at their profits (margin)Super RiskyIs this risk-free??Risky Cash Flow – not constantThis is an example of basis risk
24 1. Loan Commitment Aggregate Takedown Risk When the supply of credit is limited (in a crisis), companies tend to takedown their loan commitments simultaneously, which can severely stress banks’ balance sheetsMarch 2008 – Sept 2009Government Lending Facilities:Government lending facilities during the crisis were basically a general loan commitment to the financial sector. We can see that financials drew down these commitments simultaneously during the crisisImagine what trillions of dollars in loan take downs would do to the financial sector
25 1. Loan Commitment Takedown & Credit Risk Take-down risk: The borrower can “take-down” the entire allotment or any fraction at any time over the commitment period. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the amount the FI will have to pay out on the commitment at any given time. Back-end fees are intended to reduce this risk.Ex: February, 2002: Tyco Intl. draws down $14.4B in credit lines from banks after being shut out of the commercial paper market while wrapped up in an accounting scandal.Credit risk: Credit rating of the borrower may deteriorate over the life of the commitment.FIs will include an adverse material change in conditions clause which allows it to cancel or reprice the commitment, but this is usually an option of last resort due to legal fees, etc.
26 1. Loan Commitment Risk Summary Interest rate risk:Fixed rate – funding costs can increase or decrease bank marginsFloating rate – Basis risk, the loan commitment reference rate may not mirror the company’s cost of funding (commercial paper rate)Takedown riskThe company can take down any fraction of the loan at any timeAggregate takedown riskUnder tight credit conditions many firms will likely simultaneously takedown loan agreementsCredit RiskThe credit quality of a company may deteriorate after the loan commitment is signed - adverse material change in conditions clause
28 How do you calculate a return? Stock:Dividend Paying Stock:Bonds:General:
29 1. Loan Commitment Return Bank requires the borrower to hold a fraction of the loan at the bank – usually in demand depositsLoan Commitment ReturnLoan Commitment ReturnLCRReserve Req.
30 1. Loan Commitment Expected Return Calculation Strategy: Calculate loan amount & Interest EarnedCalculate the fee incomeCalculate compensating balanceCalculate the reserve requirementCalculate the interest expense
31 1. Loan Commitment Expected Return Example: USbank has issued a one-year loan commitment to Kamble Inc. for $2M with an up-front fee of 25 bps and a back-end fee of 10 bps on the unused portion. USbank Negotiates a 5% compensating balance to be held as non-interest bearing demand deposits. USbank can borrow and lend at 6% (cost of funding). The interest rate on the loan is 10% p.a. compounded annually. The Federal Reserve requires that 8% of demand deposits be held on reserve at the fed. Assume that the up front fee is held in cash.Calculate the expected return on the loan if Kamble is expected to take down 80% of the loan commitment immediately.Step #1 Calculate loan amount & interest earnedRealized at t=0 but held in cashStep #2 Calculate fee income
32 1. Loan Commitment Expected Return Example: USbank has issued a one-year loan commitment to Kamble Inc. for $2M with an up-front fee of 25 bps and a back-end fee of 10 bps on the unused portion. USbank Negotiates a 5% compensating balance to be held as non-interest bearing demand deposits. USbank can borrow and lend at 6% (cost of funding). The interest rate on the loan is 10% p.a. compounded annually. The Federal Reserve requires that 8% of demand deposits be held on reserve at the fed. Assume that the up front fee is held in cash.Calculate the expected return on the loan if Kamble is expected to take down 80% of the loan commitment immediately.Step #3 Calculate the compensating balanceHeld in demand depositsStep #4 Calculate reserve requirements
33 1. Loan Commitment Expected Return Example: USbank has issued a one-year loan commitment to Kamble Inc. for $2M with an up-front fee of 25 bps and a back-end fee of 10 bps on the unused portion. USbank Negotiates a 5% compensating balance to be held as non-interest bearing demand deposits. USbank can borrow and lend at 6% (cost of funding). The interest rate on the loan is 10% p.a. compounded annually. The Federal Reserve requires that 8% of demand deposits be held on reserve at the fed. Assume that the up front fee is held in cash.Calculate the expected return on the loan if Kamble is expected to take down 80% of the loan commitment immediately.Step #5 Calculate interest expenseReturn:Amount Earned =160,000+5, =165,400Amount Committed =1,600,000 – 80, , =1,526,400Return
34 1. Loan Commitment Expected Return Example: What if the up-front fee was reinvested?What if USbank paid 3% on the compensating balance?What if the compensating balance is held as a CD paying 5%Up-font Fee = ($2M)(0.0025)=(5000)(1.06)1 =5,300ReturnAmount Earned =160,000+5, =165,700Interest Exp = ($80,000-6,400)(0.03) =$2,208Amount Committed =1,600,000 – 80, , ,208 =$1,528,608ReturnInterest Exp = ($80,000)(0.05) =$4,000RR= $0.00ReturnAmount Committed =1,600,000 – 80,000 +4, =$1,524,00
35 Crux Bank has entered into a 2-year loan commitment for $2M with Powell Inc. The loan has a 7% interest rate compounded annually. Crux charges a 30 bps up-front fee and a 20 bps back-end fee on the unused portion. Crux has also negotiated a 10% compensating balance to be held in demand deposits, which pay 4% interest. The Fed’s reserve requirement on demand deposits is 8%. Assume that Crux Bank invests the up-front fee at 8% (their cost of funding). Calculate the expected loan commitment return if Powell is expected to take down $1M immediately and .6M in 15 months.Solution
36 Crux Bank has entered into a 2-year loan commitment for $2M with Powell Inc. The loan has a 7% interest rate compounded annually. Crux charges a 30 bps up-front fee and a 20 bps back-end fee on the unused portion. Crux has also negotiated a 10% compensating balance to be held in demand deposits, which pay 4% interest. The Fed’s reserve requirement on demand deposits is 8%. Assume that Crux Bank invests the up-front fee at 8% (their cost of funding). Calculate the expected loan commitment return if Powell is expected to take down $1.2M after 7 months.
37 What are we not considering? The bank has funding costs – they would need to pay 10% (for example) on the $1.6M they lend out (not considered)Risk free loan – we have not taken into account the risk that the company will default on their loan.Assume that the loan is repaid at the end of the loan commitmentThe return is actual a combination of returns on 2 loans over different horizons 2 year and .75 year – we are combining them
38 Mid Lecture Summary Introduction to OBS Accounting What they are and why they are reported off the balance sheetGrowth in OBS activityIntroduction to Schedule L OBS itemsLoan CommitmentsWhat they areHow to calculate the expected return of loan commitment
39 Lecture Outline Off-Balance-Sheet Items Loan commitment agreementLetters of creditFutures, forward contracts, swaps, and optionsWhen issued securitiesLoans soldMore on Loan Sales – good bank bad bank if there is time
40 2. Letters of Credit Commercial Letter of Credit Standby Letter of Credit
41 2. Letters of Credit: Commercial Letter of Credit (CLC) Definition:A bank’s guarantee (in exchange for a fee) against the default of a firm on its payment for goods that the firm bought from a seller.
42 2. Letters of Credit: CLC Basic Example Armani has an account with IntesaCiti (issuer) Accepts the CLC and guarantees Barneys PaymentBarneys (Applicant) applies for a CLCIntesa accepts the guarantee
43 2. Letters of Credit: CLC Basic Example Citi extends a loan to BarneysOBS asset or liability?Letters of credit are considered OBS liabilities
44 2. Letters of Credit: Example Suppose Citi issues a three-month letter of credit on behalf of Barneys, to back a $500,000 purchase order to Armani in Italy. Citi charges an up-front fee of 100 basis points for the letter of credit.How much up-front fee does the bank earn?What risk is Citi exposed to from the letter of credit?Up-front fee earned = $500,000 x = $5,000Default Risk – The risk that Barneys does not payInterest rate risk – if Barneys survives, the rate on the loan may not properlyreflect economic conditions or credit riskRecovery Risk – if Barneys files for bankruptcy, Citi may not receive the fullvalue of its claim from the bankruptcy estate
45 2. Letters of Credit: Example Suppose Citi issues a three-month letter of credit on behalf of Barneys, to back a $500,000 purchase order to Armani in Italy. Citi charges an up-front fee of 100 basis points for the letter of credit.How could Armani realize its income today if 3m Libor is 1.5%?Once Intesa accepts the letter of credit, it becomes a bankers acceptance and can be sold for its discounted value.
46 Santander bank in Chile issues a commercial letter of credit on behalf of RioTinto mining for the purchase of $12M in mining equipment from Caterpillar a US manufacture of heavy equipment. The transaction will take place in 10 months. Santander charges RioTinto a 500 bps upfront fee for the letter of credit. 10 month LIBOR is currently 5%.Calculate the upfront feeHow can caterpillar receive payment today – how much will they receive?
47 2. Letters of Credit: Standby Letters of Credit (SLCs) Definition: are issued to cover contingencies that are potentially more severe and less predictable.Examples include default guarantees to back issues of commercial paper and performance bond guarantees whereby, for example, a real estate development will be completed in some interval of time.Not surprisingly, property-casualty insurers are also in this business.Without credit enhancement, many firms would not be able to borrow in the credit market or would have to borrow at a higher funding cost. Firms also get credit enhancement to boost their ratingSame thing as a CLC but guarantees more severe less predictable events
49 3. Derivative Contracts Definition Options, Futures, Forwards and SwapsThe cash flows from an option future/forward or swap are contingent on the price of an underlying asset.Derivatives use by FIsHedging – interest rate risk, price risk, etc.Dealers – FIs make the market for OTC derivatives and charge transaction costs (J.P. Morgan Chase, Bank of America, and Citigroup)In 2009 over 1060 banks used derivatives with JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs and Bank of America accounting for 80% of the 201,964 derivatives held
50 3. Derivative Contracts Risks Counterparty riskThe risk that counterparties are unable or unwilling to comply with the terms of the contractCounterparty risk is more of a problem when one counterparty is deeply in the money and the other is deeply out of the money on the contract.Counterparty risk is more of a problem in the OTC market – contracts are settled at maturity more likely that one counterparty will be deeply indebted to the other
52 4. When Issued Securities Definition & Examples Definition: Agreements to trade a security that has not been issued yetAOL IPOTreasury Auctions
53 4. When Issued Securities Definition & Examples Treasury AuctionsSell 5,000 T-bills for $860/bondFederal Reserve announces allotment of T-Bills to bring to auctionAuction ResultsWinning biddersPriceQuantitiesThursdayFridayTuesday
54 4. When Issued Securities Risks Cannot get enough T-bills in the auction to satisfy the when- issued agreementBeing obligated to buy T-bills at a higher price than what they promised to sell them for in the when-issued agreementCash flow from when issued securities are contingent on some event (the auction results in this case). Therefore, they are held off balance sheet
56 5. Loan Sales (with Recourse) Sale with recourse: The buyer has the option to sell the loan back at a prearranged price if the borrower’s credit quality deteriorates.This generates risks for the selling bank, but the bank can sell the loan at a higher price with recourse than without recourse.Banks that sell loans often continue to service the loan (that is, collect checks), and they receive a servicing fee.Sale without recourse: Buyer purchases the loan without the option to sell it back.
58 Non-Schedule L OBS Risks Settlement RiskFIs receive much of their payments by wire transferCHIPS wire transfer system processes transactions at the end of the dayBank X can send a fund transfer to Bank Z at 11 AM, but the cash settlement takes place at the end of the day.If Bank Z promises funds to Bank Y later in the day, but Bank X fails to deliver its promised funds, Bank Z can be in a serious net funding deficit position.
59 Non-Schedule L OBS Risks Affiliate RiskA holding company is a corporation that owns the shares (usually 25% +) of other corporationsMany FIs operate in this capacityCitigroup is a One Bank Holding Company that owns all of the shares of CitibankJPMorgan Chase is a multibank holding company that owns many banks nationwideThe failure of one affiliated firm imposes affiliate risk on other banks within the holding company structure for two reasons:
60 Non-Schedule L OBS Risks Creditors of the failed affiliate may lay claim to the surviving bank’s resources on the grounds that operationally the bank isn’t really a separate entity from its affiliateRegulators have tried to enforce a source of strength doctrine in recent years for large MBHC failuresThe resources of sound banks may be used to support failing banks – courts have generally prevented this from occurring
61 Lecture Summary Off-balance Sheet Accounting Item: What it isWhy it is importantGrowth in OBS activityItem:Loan Commitment – returnLetters of creditCommercialStandbyDerivatives contractsWhen-Issued SecuritiesLoan Sales
63 Types of Loan Sales Contracts ParticipationsLimited control rights – syndicate members purchase a piece of the loan but the lead arranger maintains the loan rights.Dual risk exposure – if the lead arranger fails, the participation may become a secured claim rather than a loan saleMonitoring Costs – syndicate members rely on the lead arranger to monitorParticipationsLead Arranger JP MorganDual risk exposure- 1. exposed to the risk that the borrower defaults 2. exposed to the risk that the lead arranger defaults
64 Types of Loan Sales Contracts AppointmentsAll rights transferred on sale of loanCurrently form the bulk of the market (90% +)Lead Arranger JP Morgan
65 Good Bank – Bad Bank Bad Loans SPV off–balance – sheet Bank is tasked with selling crappy loansWhy would anyone want this job?The bank instantly looks better after selling bad loansWhat stops management from just giving these loans awayManagement compensation is tied to the bank’s equity value
66 Good Bank – Bad BankExample: Mellon Bank Creates Grant Street National Bank (GSNB)Mellon wrote-down the face value of $941 M in real estate loans and sold them to GSNB for $577 M.GSNB was an SPV funded by bond issues and common /preferred stockManagers of the bad bank GSNB were given equity (jr. preferred stock). This was an incentive mechanism to maximize value in liquidating the loans purchased from Mellon (i.e. doing better than $577 M)
67 Good Bank – Bad BankWhy loan sales at the bad banks are value enhancing:Bad bank enables bad loans to be worked out by loan workout specialistsGood bank’s reputation and access to deposit and funding markets are improved when bad loans are goneBad bank does not have short-term deposits, so it can follow an optimal strategy for bad assets – it isn’t concerned about liquidityContracts for managers are created to maximize incentives to generate good valueThe structure reduces information asymmetries about the value of the good bank’s assets, increasing attractiveness to risk-averse investors
68 Why do Banks Sell Loans? Credit and liquidity risk management If sold without recourse, removed from balance sheet.Fee incomeCapital costsMeet capital requirements by reducing assets.Reduce reserve requirements
69 Lecture Summary Off-Balance-Sheet Accounting Introduction Off-Balance-Sheet ItemsLoan commitment agreement (Return)Letters of creditFutures, forward contracts, swaps, and optionsWhen issued securitiesLoans soldMore on Loan Sales – good bank bad bank