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Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Managers need high-quality and timely information to support decision making Chapter 6 - Enhancing Business.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Managers need high-quality and timely information to support decision making Chapter 6 - Enhancing Business."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Managers need high-quality and timely information to support decision making Chapter 6 - Enhancing Business Intelligence Using Information Systems

2 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Chapter 6 Learning Objectives Business Intelligence Describe the concept of business intelligence and how databases serve as a foundation for gaining business intelligence. Business Intelligence Components Explain the three components of business intelligence: information and knowledge discovery, business analytics, and information visualization.

3 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Business Intelligence Describe the concept of business intelligence and how databases serve as a foundation for gaining business intelligence. Business Intelligence Components Explain the three components of business intelligence: information and knowledge discovery, business analytics, and information visualization.

4 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 Why Organizations Need Business Intelligence: Threats and Opportunities

5 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Why Organizations Need Business Intelligence: Understanding Big Data Businesses are dealing with the challenge of “Big Data” – High Volume Unprecedented amounts of data – High Variety Structured data Unstructured data – High Velocity Rapid processing to maximize value

6 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Why Organizations Need Business Intelligence: Continuous Planning

7 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 Databases: Tables and Records

8 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Types of Decisions You Face

9 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 Scenario – Warehouse Manager You know you have too much cash tied up in inventory. You want to reduce inventory levels. You get a lot of heat when orders are placed and you can’t fill the order from inventory. What information do you need, how would you like to see it and how do you make decisions about adjusting inventory levels? Are these structured or unstructured decisions?

10 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 Decision Support vs. Artificial Intelligence Helps you analyze information Makes or recommends a decision for you

11 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 Business Intelligence (BI) Business Intelligence (BI) is the use of information systems to gather and analyze information from internal and external sources in order to make better business decisions. BI is used to integrate data from disconnected: – Reports – Databases – Spreadsheets Integrated data helps to monitor and fine-tune business processes.

12 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 Databases & Data Warehouses Operational Databases

13 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 What Is a Hypercube? Create multi-dimensional “cubes” of information that summarize transactional data across a variety of dimensions. OLAP vs. OLTP Envisioned by smart businesspeople, built by the IT pros

14 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 Data Marts

15 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 Business Intelligence Components Business Intelligence Describe the concept of business intelligence and how databases serve as a foundation for gaining business intelligence. Business Intelligence Components Explain the three components of business intelligence: information and knowledge discovery, business analytics, and information visualization.

16 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 Business Intelligence Components Three types of tools – Information and knowledge discovery – Business analytics – Information visualization Information and Knowledge Discovery – Search for hidden relationships. – Hypotheses are tested against existing data. For example: Customers with a household income over $150,000 are twice as likely to respond to our marketing campaign as customers with an income of $60,000 or less.

17 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 17 Ad Hoc Reports and Queries

18 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 18 Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Complex, multidimensional analyses of data beyond simple queries OLAP server —main OLAP component Key OLAP concepts: – Measures and dimensions – Cubes, slicing, and dicing – Data mining – Association discovery – Clustering and classification – Text mining and Web content mining – Web usage mining One application of OLAP…

19 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 19 Cubes Cube—an OLAP data structure organizing data via multiple dimensions Cubes can have any number of dimensions – Be careful, most people can’t comprehend after 3 dimensions! A cube with three dimensions

20 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 20 Slicing and Dicing Slicing and dicing—analyzing the data on subsets of the dimensions

21 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 21 Data Mining Used for discovering “hidden” predictive relationships in the data – Patterns, trends, or rules – Example: identification of profitable customer segments or fraud detection – Any predictive models should be tested against “fresh” data. Data-mining algorithms are run against large data warehouses. – Data reduction helps to reduce the complexity 0f data and speed up analysis.

22 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 22 Text mining the Internet

23 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 Textual Analysis Benefits Marketing—learn about customers’ thoughts, feelings, and emotions. Operations—learn about product performance by analyzing service records or customer calls. Strategic decisions—gather competitive intelligence. Sales—learn about major accounts by analyzing news coverage. Human resources—monitor employee satisfaction or compliance to company policies (important for compliance with regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act).

24 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 24 Web Usage Mining Used by organizations such as Amazon.com Used to determine patterns in customers’ usage data. – How users navigate through the site – How much time they spend on different pages Clickstream data—recording of the users’ path through a Web site. Stickiness—a Web page’s ability to attract and keep visitors.

25 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 25 Web Usage Mining Project 3 – Create an e-Portfolio – Enable Google Analytics – Analyze the traffic to your site What will you be doing with Google Analytics?

26 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 26 Twitter Feeds Have you ever heard of anyone mining Twitter feeds? As a business person, what kind of information could you learn about your customers if you subscribed to every Twitter feed imaginable and mined the data?

27 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 27 Presenting Results

28 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 28 Any Danger? Is there any danger in a business student becoming too “tech savvy”? Is there an danger in a business student not becoming “tech savvy” enough? What is a “program” and is there anything that is more nerdy that being a “programmer”? Should you be a little more of a nerd?

29 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 29 Business Analytics BI applications to support human and automated decision making – Business Analytics—predict future outcomes – Decision Support Systems (DSS)—support human unstructured decision making – Intelligent systems – Enhancing organizational collaboration

30 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 30 Decision Support Systems (DSS) Decision-making support for recurring problems Used mostly by managerial level employees (can be used at any level) Interactive decision aid What-if analyses – Analyze results for hypothetical changes – Example: Microsoft Excel

31 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 31 Architecture of a DSS

32 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 32 Common DSS Models

33 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 33 Artificial Intelligence Spencer Platt/Getty Images, Inc.. © 2002 Paramount Pictures/Courtesy: Everett Collection.. Is Nicholas’ robot “intelligent”? Will it become “intelligent” over the summer? Be wary of “Artificial” anything?

34 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 34 Expert Systems

35 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 35 Could You Use an Expert System? Talk to the person next to you about the various jobs that you have had. Discuss situations where a decision tree could be used to lead an employee who wasn’t really an expert through a series of questions and eventually to the answer they are looking for. Where is the intelligence…in the employee or the decision tree?

36 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 36 Can you recognize patterns and be trained? You see a new breed of dog How do you know it is a dog? How do you know it is even an animal? How do you know if an animal is a mammal? How about a whale? How about a platypus?

37 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 37 Scenario – Loan Officer You need to make approval/rejection decisions on loan applications? What information do you look at to make your decisions? Do you make decisions based on individual pieces of information or combinations of information? What combinations correlate with good/bad loans?

38 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 38 Example: Neural Network System

39 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 39 Intelligent Agent Systems Program working in the background Bot (software robot) Provides service when a specific event occurs

40 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 40 Types of Intelligent Agent Systems User agents – Performs a task for the user Buyer agents (shopping bots) – Search for the best price Monitoring and sensing agents – Keep track of information and notifies users when it changes Data-mining agents – Continuously browse data warehouses to detect changes Web crawlers (aka Web spiders) – Continuously browses the Web Destructive agents – Designed to farm addresses or deposit spyware

41 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 41 Question What is a “Baby Boomer” and how many of them are in the workforce today? How many will be in the workforce 10 years from now? What is “Tacit Knowledge”? Why is this keeping CEOs awake at night? Is there technology that we can use to help with this?

42 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 42 Knowledge Management

43 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 43 Benefits and Challenges of Knowledge-Based Systems

44 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 44 Information Visualization Display of complex data relationships using graphical methods – Enables managers to quickly grasp results of analyses – Visual analytics – Dashboards – Geographic information systems

45 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 45 Digital Dashboards

46 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 46 Dashboards Dashboards use various graphical elements to highlight important information.

47 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 47 Thematic Maps A thematic map showing car thefts in a town

48 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 48 Geographic Information System (GIS)


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