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By: Mr Hashem Alaidaros MIS 211 Lecture 4 Title: Data Base Management System.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Mr Hashem Alaidaros MIS 211 Lecture 4 Title: Data Base Management System."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Mr Hashem Alaidaros MIS 211 Lecture 4 Title: Data Base Management System

2 Main Points Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment Database management system (DBMS) Concept Relational Object Oriented Data Warehouse Business Intelligence OLAP Data Mining

3 It shows the student course file grouped with files on students’ personal histories and financial backgrounds to create a student database.

4 Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment What happen if no database? Problems with the traditional file environment (files maintained separately by different departments) Data redundancy and inconsistency Data redundancy: Presence of duplicate data in multiple files Data inconsistency: Same attribute has different values Lack of flexibility Poor security Lack of data sharing and availability

5 Traditional File Processing This graphic illustrates a traditional environment, in which different business functions maintain separate data and applications to store and access that data. What kinds of data might be shared between accounting/finance and HR. What about between sales and marketing and manufacturing?

6 DBMS Database management system (DBMS) is a software that allow an organization to: 1. Organize and centralize data, 2. manage them efficiently, 3. and provide access to the stored data by application program. DBMS Interfaces between application programs and physical data files (as seen in next figure) DBMS Solves problems of traditional file environment Controls redundancy Eliminates inconsistency Enables organization to central manage data and data security


8 DBMS Relational DBMS Object-Oriented DBMS

9 Relational DBMS Relational DBMS: Represent data as two-dimensional tables called relations or files Each table contains data on entity and attributes Table: grid of columns and rows Rows (tuples): Records for different entities Fields (columns): Represents attribute for entity Key field: Field used to uniquely identify each record Primary key: Field in table used for key fields Foreign key: Primary key used in second table as look-up field to identify records from original table Queries can be defined to retrieve information from the tables T


11 Object-Oriented DBMS Object-Oriented DBMS (OODBMS) Stores data and procedures as objects Capable of managing graphics, multimedia, Java applets Relatively slow compared with relational DBMS for processing large numbers of transactions Hybrid object-relational DBMS: Provide capabilities of both OODBMS and relational DBMS

12 DBMS and Decision Making Database management systems organize the large volume of data that firms use in their everyday business activities The data organization must also allow managers to find specific information easily and quickly for decision making The increased importance of databases as resources supporting decision making has required managers to learn more about database design and use So much data exists that it would be useless for business decision making without an effective and efficient manner for organizing the data

13 DBMS Applications Microsoft Access is a Database Management System. It handles data management tasks the same way as Word handles document management and Excel handles statistics. SQL would be the next database subject you would learn after Access. Whereas Access is meant for the smaller user, SQL lets you into the domain of the power-user. Oracle

14 Microsoft Access has a rudimentary data dictionary capability that displays information about the size, format, and other characteristics of each field in a database. Displayed here is the information maintained in the SUPPLIER table. The small key icon to the left of Supplier_Number indicates that it is a key field.

15 Data Warehouse Data warehouse: Stores current and historical data from many core operational transaction systems Combines and standardizes information for use across enterprise, but data cannot be changed Data warehouse system will provide query, analysis, and reporting tools

16 Data Warehouse Components

17 Cont. According to the previous figure: It shows the components of a data warehouse system. It shows that the data warehouse extracts data from multiple sources, both internal and external, and transforms it as needed for the data warehouse systems. To extract meaningful information from the data warehouse, additional tools, such as queries and reports, OLAP, and data mining are required. The information directory provides users with information about what data is in the warehouse.

18 Business Intelligence Business Intelligence is: Tools for merging, analyzing, and providing access to vast amounts of data to help users make better business decisions Principle tools include: 1. Software for database query and reporting 2. Online analytical processing (OLAP) 3. Data mining

19 Cont. This graphic illustrates the process of transforming data into business intelligence

20 Cont. A series of analytical tools works with data stored in databases to find patterns and insights for helping managers and employees make better decisions to improve organizational performance.

21 OLAP Online analytical processing (OLAP) Supports multidimensional data analysis Viewing data using multiple dimensions Each aspect of information (product, pricing, cost, region, time period) is different dimension E.g., how many washers sold in East in June compared with other regions? OLAP enables rapid, online answers to ad hoc queries

22 OLAP The view that is showing is product versus region. If you rotate the cube 90 degrees, the face that will show is product versus actual and projected sales. If you rotate the cube 90 degrees again, you will see region versus actual and projected sales. Other views are possible.

23 Data Mining Data mining: Data mining provides insights into data that cannot be discovered through OLAP, by inferring rules from patterns in data Finds hidden patterns, relationships in large databases and infers rules to predict future behavior Examples: ??

24 Cont. Types of information obtainable from data mining 1. Classification: Recognizes patterns that describe group to which item belongs 2. Clustering: Similar to classification when no groups have been defined; finds groupings within data 3. Forecasting: Uses series of existing values to forecast what other values will be

25 Cont. business intelligence techniques related to data mining: Predictive analysis Text mining Web mining

26 Cont. Predictive analysis Uses data mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events E.g., Probability a customer will respond to an offer or purchase a specific product. This helped the company create a more targeted mailing list, improving their response rate Text mining Extracts key elements from large unstructured data sets (e.g., stored e-mails)

27 Cont. Web mining Discovery and analysis of useful patterns and information from WWW. Example: to understand customer behavior, evaluate effectiveness of Web site, etc. Techniques Web content mining. Ex: Knowledge extracted from content of Web pages Web structure mining. Ex: links to and from Web page Web usage mining. Ex: User interaction data recorded by Web server

28 Cont. Web Mining: Example: Marketers using Google for Search services, which track the popularity of various words and phrases used in Google search queries, to learn: what people are interested in and what they are interested in buying.

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