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**Chapter 4 Modeling Sinusoidal Functions**

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Example 1: Mark Twain sat on the deck of a river steamboat. As the paddlewheel turned, a point on the paddle blade moved in such a way that its distance, d, from the water’s surface was a sinusoidal function of time. When his stopwatch read 4 s, the point was at its highest, 16 ft above the water’s surface. The wheel’s diameter was 18 ft, and it completed a revolution every 10 s. **What is the significance of the amplitude in the context of this problem? Of the x-intercepts? Of the sinusoidal axis?

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Example 2: Naturalists find the populations of some kinds of predatory animals vary periodically. Assumer that the population of foxes in a certain forest varies sinusoidally with time. Records started being kept when time t = 0 years. A minimum number, 200 foxes, occurred when t = 2.9 years. The next maximum, 800 foxes, occurred at t = 5.1 years.

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Example 3: A weight attached to the end of a long spring is bouncing up and down. As it bounces, its distance from the floor varies sinusoidally with time. You start a stopwatch. When the stopwatch reads 0.3 s, the weight first reaches a high point 60 cm above the floor. The next low point, 40 cm above the floor, occurs at 1.8 s.

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Example 4: Tarzan is swinging back and forth on his grapevine. As he swings, he goes back and forth across a river bank, going alternately over land and water. Jane decides to model mathematically his motion and starts her stopwatch. Let t be the number of seconds the stopwatch reads and let y be the number of meters Tarzan is from the river bank. Assume that y varies sinusoidally with t, and that y < 0 represents Tarzan over land and y > 0 represents Tarzan over water. Jane finds that when t = 2, Tarzan is at one end of his swing (y = -23) and that he reaches the other end of his swing at t = 5 (y = 17).

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Example 5: The hum you hear on the radio when it is not tuned to a station is a sound wave of 60 cycles per second.

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Example 6: After the sun rises, its angle of elevation increase rapidly at first and then more slowly, reaching a maximum near noontime. Then the angle decreases until sunset. The next day the phenomenon repeats itself. Assume that when the sun is up, its angle of elevation E varies sinusoidally with the time of day. Let t be the number of hours that has elapsed since midnight last night. Assume the amplitude of this sinusoid is 60o, and that the maximum angle of elevation occurs at 12:45 p.m. Assume that at this time of year the sinusoidal axis is E = -5O. The period is, of course, 24 hours.

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