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EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY MAZEN SALLOUM 26 FEB 2015.

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Presentation on theme: "EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY MAZEN SALLOUM 26 FEB 2015."— Presentation transcript:

1 EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY MAZEN SALLOUM 26 FEB 2015

2 2| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | AGENDA  4K Video ‒Emergence of 4K Devices ‒4K Formats ‒4K Video Compression & Decode ‒4K Graphics ‒4K & Display Interfaces  Adaptive-Sync ‒Video Playback ‒Graphics Rendering & Current Sync Issues ‒Power Saving

3 3| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | OVERVIEW  Multimedia and display components of embedded systems are constantly evolving ‒New compression and display standards ‒New types of content  Focus on following specific topics ‒4K video content ‒Adaptive-Sync

4 4K Video

5 5| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | EMERGENCE OF 4K OR ULTRA-HIGH DEFINITION (UHD)  Migration towards higher resolutions than now common High Definition (HD)  4K is four times number of pixels compared to HD’s 1080p format  4K presents much better image quality and finer detail ‒Perception of detail depends on distance from display  4K panels are higher density (or PPI), as compared to HD, which offers smoother looking image, especially at closer viewing distances

6 6| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 |  4K is used across different types of devices ‒High-end monitors and large-size digital signage displays ‒All-in-one PCs ‒Tablets ‒Consumer TVs ‒Notebooks ‒Digital cinema projectors ‒Capture devices: Professional and prosumer camcorders and cameras  Content distribution websites streaming at 4K formats 4K DEVICES AND USAGE

7 7| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | 4K & UHD FORMATS  UHD is a TV standard, defined by ITU, and it covers two resolutions 1 ‒UHD-1 is 3840x2160 (8.29 megapixels) ‒4x number of pixels of High Definition’s 1080p ‒Aspect ratio of 16:9 ‒UHD-2 is 7680x4320 (33.18 megapixels) ‒16x number of pixels compared to High Definition’s 1080p ‒Sometimes referred to as 8K  4K is mainly tied to film projectors and Digital Cinema Initiative (DCI), with following formats 2 ‒DCI 4K (native resolution) is 4096×2160 (8.84 megapixels) ‒Wider aspect ratio compared to UHD-1 ‒DCI 4K (CinemaScope cropped) is 4096×1716 (7.02 megapixels) ‒DCI 4K (flat cropped) is 3996×2160 (8.63 megapixels) 1)"Ultra High Definition Television: Threshold of a new age". ITU press release. May )“Digital Cinema Initiatives”. Wikipedia

8 8| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | 4K VIDEO COMPRESSION  HD content is most commonly compressed using H.264  Given size of 4K video content, it requires higher video compression ratios than H.264  Much 4K video will be encoded using High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) ‒Standard co-developed by ITU-T and ISO/IEC ‒HEVC, also referred to as H.265 ‒Offers up to double compression rates compared to H.264  Another video compression standard commonly used is VP9 ‒VP9 is mostly leveraged today for streaming applications, and is widely supported by mainstream Internet browsers

9 9| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | 4K VIDEO DECODE  Increased compression rates require much higher processing power (compared to H.264)  Decoding 4K content, compressed using HEVC or VP9, would consume the capabilities of a typical CPU ‒Bitrate and other factors also affect playback performance of systems  Desirable that systems possess a dedicated engine that is designed to decode 4K content  Larger system memory and bigger memory bandwidth Dedicated Hardware Decode CPU Decode System Specs  AMD A Radeon R7, 12CU, 3.5GHz  16GB DDR3 2133MHz  AMD Catalyst™ Omega Driver with-dotnet45-win8.1-64bit

10 10| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | Decode Pipeline VIDEO PLAYBACK PIPELINE Internet System Memory Network Adapter USB / SATA Controller CPU Fixed- Function Decoder Post Processing ( CSC, Scaling, other Filters ) CPU GPU Compute Units Display Output GPU Display Controller Faster Network Bandwidth Higher Storage Capacity Faster Interface Higher Memory Bandwidth & Capacity Faster CPUs New Silicon Faster CPUsNew Display Interface Faster GPUs

11 11| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 |  Entire graphics pipeline is affected ‒Geometry shaders ‒Vertex shaders ‒Frame buffers  All required to increase in size to handle 4K formats  Larger Graphics memory and bigger memory bandwidth 4K GRAPHICS Applications Vertex Shader Geometry Shader Fragment Shader Buffer Processing Graphics Pipeline

12 12| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 |  HDMI and DisplayPort (DP) are popular display interfaces  Initial versions of HDMI and DP support HD resolutions at 60Hz and 4K formats only at lower refresh rate of 30Hz ‒Initial versions’ maximum bandwidth are less than what is needed to output 4K at 60Hz  Both interface standards have been updated recently, with higher bandwidth  Key versions that can display 4K content ‒HDMI 1.4 supports up to 4K at 30Hz ‒HDMI 2.0 supports up to 4K at 60Hz ‒DP1.1 supports up to 4K at 30Hz ‒DP1.2 supports up to 4K at 60Hz ‒DP1.3 supports up to 3840x2160 (UHD-1) at 120Hz, or 7680x4320 (UHD-2) at 60Hz 4K AND DISPLAY INTERFACES

13 13| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | DISPLAY DEVICES RESOLUTION AND INTERFACES  Resolutions and display interfaces vary by type of device  4K TVs support up to 3840x2160 (UHD) resolutions ‒HDMI 1.4 or 2.0 interfaces as inputs  PC monitors support up to 3840x2160 resolutions ‒Both DP and HDMI as inputs  4K projectors are mostly at 4096×2160 resolution ‒Inputs are HDMI, SDI or DVI interfaces

14 Adaptive-Sync

15 15| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | ADAPTIVE-SYNC  Before Adaptive-Sync: ‒Displays refresh at constant rate of 60Hz ‒Regardless of content being displayed ‒Irrespective of capabilities of graphics source it’s interfacing with ‒Causes issues such as jittery video playback and jerky graphics  With Adaptive-Sync: ‒New standard Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA®) 1 ‒Adaptive-Sync was introduced as part of DisplayPort 1.2a in mid-2014 ‒Also part of DP 1.3, as an optional feature ‒With Adaptive-Sync, monitor no longer controls its refresh rate ‒Instead GPU refreshes monitor based on frequency of generated content, or its graphics rendering rate ‒Solves video playback and graphics issues above, plus offers power saving 1) “VESA DisplayPort Adaptive-Sync White Paper”, Syed Athar Hussain and Shane Parfitt. VESA, May 2013

16 16| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | ADAPTIVE-SYNC & VIDEO PLAYBACK  Before Adaptive-Sync: ‒Video is typically played back at 24 or 25 Hz ‒Or multiples of 24/25 Hz: 48/50 and 72/75 ‒Other rates are also used, e.g , or 30Hz ‒Judder effect occurs when 24Hz video — or multiples of it — is displayed at 60Hz ‒Particularly noticeable in panning scenes or when objects are moving against a static background ‒Judder reduction techniques are frequently performed in video post processing stages to resolve this  With Adaptive-Sync: ‒These techniques are no longer required with Adaptive-Sync; monitor would update based on natural flow of video content, e.g. it would refresh at 48Hz ‒Lowers processing system requirements, since video post processing portion is eliminated ‒Reducing monitor’s refresh rate from 60 to 48Hz (or 50Hz), cuts power consumption

17 17| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 |  Many GPUs process graphics workloads variably, depending on how performance intensive they are ‒GPUs don’t render frames at regular, fixed cadence of 60Hz  Mismatch between GPU’s rendering rate and monitor’s set refresh rate, causes visual quality issues  When rendering rate is lower than 60Hz, stuttering effect is introduced: ‒GPU hasn’t finalized rendering of next frame (II), but is forced to output current frame again (I) ‒When monitor displays same frame twice, it creates visually stuttering effect GRAPHICS RENDERING & STUTTERING Stuttering effect Display I Render IRender IIIRender IV Display IDisplay IIDisplay IIIDisplay IV TIME Render II

18 18| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 |  Stuttering issue can be removed by forcing GPU to output as soon as it finishes rendering of next frame (II) ‒Often occurs midway through monitor’s refresh cycle ‒Eliminates stuttering, but introduces tearing effect ‒Portion of each of the 2 frames is being displayed simultaneously on screen Tearing effect Render IRender IIRender IIIRender IV Display IDisplay IIDisplay IIIDisplay IV TIME GRAPHICS RENDERING & TEARING Display IDisplay II

19 19| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | GRAPHICS RENDERING & ADAPTIVE-SYNC  Adaptive-Sync resolves both stuttering and tearing issues  When GPU is taking longer to render frame than monitor’s fixed refresh rate, monitor would hold off from refreshing until it receives new frame (II) ‒Monitor is fully synchronized with GPU, presenting frames as soon as they available or rendered by GPU Stutter & Lag Display I Render IRender IIIRender IV Display IDisplay IIDisplay IIIDisplay IV TIME Render II Render IRender IIRender IIIRender IV Display IDisplay IIDisplay IIIDisplay IV TIME Without Adaptive-Sync: Stutter and Lag With Adaptive-Sync: No Stutter and Lag

20 20| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | ADAPTIVE-SYNC & POWER SAVING  Before Adaptive-Sync ‒Applicable when content being displayed is static ‒Today, panels would still refresh at 60Hz, as there’s no detection of content type ‒Each refresh consumes power  With Adaptive-Sync ‒Panels refresh at their lowest supported rate ‒Power saving is particularly important for battery-operated devices

21 21| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | SUMMARY  4K and UHD formats are becoming more prevalent, across multitude of devices  4K video, with its higher compression schemes, puts strain on entire video pipeline  Video decoding engine desired to support new compression schemes  Creates new demands on graphics processors, system memory, and display interfaces  Adaptive-Sync provides dynamic synchronization between GPUs and monitors  New standard enables smoother visual experiences ‒Eliminates judder during video playback ‒Resolves stuttering and tearing issues in case of graphics ‒Offers power savings in case of static content

22 22| EVOLUTION OF MULTIMEDIA & DISPLAY| FEBRUARY 26, 2015 | DISCLAIMER & ATTRIBUTION The information presented in this document is for informational purposes only and may contain technical inaccuracies, omissions and typographical errors. The information contained herein is subject to change and may be rendered inaccurate for many reasons, including but not limited to product and roadmap changes, component and motherboard version changes, new model and/or product releases, product differences between differing manufacturers, software changes, BIOS flashes, firmware upgrades, or the like. AMD assumes no obligation to update or otherwise correct or revise this information. However, AMD reserves the right to revise this information and to make changes from time to time to the content hereof without obligation of AMD to notify any person of such revisions or changes. AMD MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE CONTENTS HEREOF AND ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY INACCURACIES, ERRORS OR OMISSIONS THAT MAY APPEAR IN THIS INFORMATION. AMD SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT WILL AMD BE LIABLE TO ANY PERSON FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL OR OTHER CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING FROM THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN, EVEN IF AMD IS EXPRESSLY ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. ATTRIBUTION © 2015 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. AMD, the AMD Arrow logo, Catalyst and combinations thereof are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions. Other names are for informational purposes only and may be trademarks of their respective owners.

23 THANK YOU


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