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The Vietnam Center and Archive Stephen Maxner, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "The Vietnam Center and Archive Stephen Maxner, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Vietnam Center and Archive Stephen Maxner, Ph.D.

2 SARBICA EXECUTIVE MEETING & SEMINAR “Experiences in Digital Conversion of Analog Sound and Moving Image Materials for Preservation and Access” October 1, 2009

3 Audio Recording Digitization Audio Recording Digitization Conservation and Access Conservation and Access Equipment and Software Equipment and Software Best Practices and Procedures Best Practices and Procedures Pre and Post-Digital Processing, Metadata, and Abstracting Pre and Post-Digital Processing, Metadata, and Abstracting Film and Video Digitization Film and Video Digitization Conservation and Access Conservation and Access Equipment and Software Equipment and Software Best Practices and Procedures Best Practices and Procedures Pre and Post-Digital Processing, Metadata, and Abstracting Pre and Post-Digital Processing, Metadata, and Abstracting Presentation Outline

4 Various Recording Formats Vinyl-Acetate discs (LPs etc.) Vinyl-Acetate discs (LPs etc.) Magnetic tape (Reel-To-Reel) Magnetic tape (Reel-To-Reel) Magnetic tape (Cassette) Magnetic tape (Cassette) Digitization of Audio Records

5 Digitization is important part of modern archive practice for preservation, conservation, and access of sound recordings. Preserves audio recordings by transferring high quality digital facsimiles to archive gold CDs and redundant electronic backup systems Researchers access digital copies reducing use of original recording providing better conservation and preservation Digital access means wider researcher use via Internet Conservation, Preservation, and Access

6 OTARI Digital Archiving System (DAS) OTARI Digital Archiving System (DAS) Dual Deck Cassette Player Dual Deck Cassette Player OTARI MTR-15-DAS2 Reel-to-Reel Magnetic Tape Player OTARI MTR-15-DAS2 Reel-to-Reel Magnetic Tape Player Both players feed into an OTARI DAS-ADC (Audio Digital Conversion) system which stores digital recordings on a network or local hard drives Both players feed into an OTARI DAS-ADC (Audio Digital Conversion) system which stores digital recordings on a network or local hard drives Digitizes at 2-4x the speed of the original recording (i.e. a one hour recording is digitized in minutes) Digitizes at 2-4x the speed of the original recording (i.e. a one hour recording is digitized in minutes) Equipment used for Digitizing Magnetic Tape

7 Audio Otari Reel-to-Reel and Cassette Tape Digitization Workstation

8 Software Adobe Audition: Recording, editing, noise reduction, file conversion, etc…

9 Recordings Check for conservation and preservation issues and problems (tape separation and fraying, tape audio bleed-through, etc…) Collect pre and post Metadata and abstract Equipment Properly clean heads between every recording Check for magnetized heads and de-magnetize if necessary Best Practices and Procedures

10 Digital File Formats – Digital Preservation For music and complex recordings – record digital files at Hz (ensures capture of full dynamic range of audio) For voice only recordings it is possible to capture at Hz Digital File Formats – User Access Convert primary.WAV to MP3 using Audition or similar file conversion software Select optimal settings for project – should be no lower than 128kbps files Primary Recording as.WAV or.BWF (uncompressed) Best Practices and Procedures

11 Develop Metadata Plan to ensure consistency Check recording speeds (3.75, 7.5, 15 ips) Check recording formats (mono, stereo, 2 track, 4 track) Check storage method (tail in, tail out) Check for tape fraying, magnetic bleed-through Metadata Collection

12 Donor information, dates, tape data, keywords and search terms (e.g. proper names, dates, significant events or subjects, etc…) Donor information, dates, tape data, keywords and search terms (e.g. proper names, dates, significant events or subjects, etc…) Create abstract description Create abstract description Archive storage of original tape (cold storage but not freezing) Archive storage of original tape (cold storage but not freezing) Archive storage of Preservation Digital (archival CD in cold storage) and access copy on CD Archive storage of Preservation Digital (archival CD in cold storage) and access copy on CD Post-Digital Processing and Metadata

13 Digitizing Film Conservation and Access Conservation and Access Equipment and Software Equipment and Software Best Practices and Procedures Best Practices and Procedures Post-Digital Processing, Metadata, and Abstracting Post-Digital Processing, Metadata, and Abstracting

14 Digitization is important part of modern archive practice for preservation, conservation, and access of film recordings. Preserves moving image recordings by transferring high quality digital facsimiles to archive DVDs and redundant electronic backup systems Researchers access digital copies reducing use of original film providing better conservation and preservation Digital access means wider researcher use via Internet Conservation, Preservation, and Access

15 Special Conservation/ Preservation Issues Film (8mm, Super 8mm, 16mm, and 35mm) Film (8mm, Super 8mm, 16mm, and 35mm) Vinegar Syndrome Vinegar Syndrome Deteriorating film off-gases pungent odor indicating the chemical breakdown of the film. This condition can not be reversed but the chemical reaction can be slowed through deep cold (freezer) storage. Deteriorating film off-gases pungent odor indicating the chemical breakdown of the film. This condition can not be reversed but the chemical reaction can be slowed through deep cold (freezer) storage. Aging film becomes brittle over time making sprocket hole damage more likely as film is played Aging film becomes brittle over time making sprocket hole damage more likely as film is played

16 Video Tape (½ and 1 Inch Reel, ¾ Inch Tape, VHS) Video Tape (½ and 1 Inch Reel, ¾ Inch Tape, VHS) All magnetic tape becomes scratched over time as it passes over player heads reducing playback quality All magnetic tape becomes scratched over time as it passes over player heads reducing playback quality Tape is magnetic making it susceptible to electromagnetic damage Tape is magnetic making it susceptible to electromagnetic damage Cheaper tape can flay over time resulting in the separation of the magnetic coating from the plastic tape Cheaper tape can flay over time resulting in the separation of the magnetic coating from the plastic tape Special Conservation/ Preservation Issues

17 Equipment and Software Computer Workstations Computer Workstations Analog-Digital Video Interface Analog-Digital Video Interface Film Systems Film Systems Video Tape Systems Video Tape Systems Special Equipment Special Equipment Special Software Special Software

18 Digital Workstations Working with Digital Video Files requires faster systems than typical desktop Working with Digital Video Files requires faster systems than typical desktop Dell Precision Workstations Dell Precision Workstations Multiple processors (at least dual – quad is better) Multiple processors (at least dual – quad is better) Maxed out Operating RAM (4 GB optimal) Maxed out Operating RAM (4 GB optimal) Multiple large hard drives in RAID configuration Multiple large hard drives in RAID configuration High quality video card with large amount of Video RAM (1 GB preferred) High quality video card with large amount of Video RAM (1 GB preferred)

19 Analog to Digital Video Interface Pinnacle Studio Pinnacle Studio “Breakout Box” with analog and digital connections to include 1394 (fire wire), RCA, S-Video, etc… “Breakout Box” with analog and digital connections to include 1394 (fire wire), RCA, S-Video, etc… Excellent capture and editing software Excellent capture and editing software Allows for limited color correction, grayscale production (for damaged color film), DVD production, etc… Allows for limited color correction, grayscale production (for damaged color film), DVD production, etc…

20 Film Playback Systems Elmo Film Systems Elmo Film Systems 8mm 8mm Super 8mm Super 8mm 16mm 16mm Analog and S-Video Connections Analog and S-Video Connections Tape Video playback systems (VHS, ½, ¾, and 1 inch Sony, Beta, Beta SP, etc…) Tape Video playback systems (VHS, ½, ¾, and 1 inch Sony, Beta, Beta SP, etc…)

21 Moving Images 16mm and 8mm direct to digital film conversion systems

22 Video Tape Playback Systems Sony Reel-to-Reel Systems (½ and 1 Inch Tape) Sony Reel-to-Reel Systems (½ and 1 Inch Tape) Sony ¾ Inch Player/Recorder Sony ¾ Inch Player/Recorder VHS Player/Recorder VHS Player/Recorder Sony Beta SP Player/Recorder Sony Beta SP Player/Recorder Sony DV and Mini DV Tape Player/Recorder Sony DV and Mini DV Tape Player/Recorder

23 Other Special Equipment Film and Video Cleaning Kit Film and Video Cleaning Kit Solvent and swabs for cleaning gates and heads Solvent and swabs for cleaning gates and heads Cans of compressed air Cans of compressed air Film Splicing Kit Film Splicing Kit Splicer Splicer Leader Tape Leader Tape Film Tape Film Tape

24 Special Software Video Encoding Software for Online Access Video Encoding Software for Online Access Windows Media Encoder Windows Media Encoder Converts AVI to Streaming WMV with Batch Process Converts AVI to Streaming WMV with Batch Process Free with unlimited user access Free with unlimited user access Disadvantage: Limited control over Digital Rights Management Disadvantage: Limited control over Digital Rights Management

25 Best Practices and Procedures Conservation/Preservation Assessment Conservation/Preservation Assessment For Film For Film Check for brittleness, broken sprocket holes, etc… Check for brittleness, broken sprocket holes, etc… Check equipment for proper operation and cleanliness (film feeder, film gate, etc…) Check equipment for proper operation and cleanliness (film feeder, film gate, etc…) For Video Tape For Video Tape Check for flaying and tape gate for proper function Check for flaying and tape gate for proper function Check equipment, clean tape heads, etc… Check equipment, clean tape heads, etc…

26 Best Practices and Procedures Digital File Creation Digital File Creation Use highest quality input for video (S-Video v. RCA) Use highest quality input for video (S-Video v. RCA) Playback at highest quality setting (28-30 FPS) Playback at highest quality setting (28-30 FPS) Create uncompressed AVI file for Digital Preservation Create uncompressed AVI file for Digital Preservation Create high quality DVD playback copy for onsite patron access (MPEG-4) Create high quality DVD playback copy for onsite patron access (MPEG-4) Create streaming video files in multiple size ranges for online patron access ( kbps) Create streaming video files in multiple size ranges for online patron access ( kbps)

27 Metadata Collection Develop Metadata plan to ensure consistency Develop Metadata plan to ensure consistency Physical Material Description Physical Material Description Collection information Collection information Media format Media format Length of play Length of play Condition of material Condition of material Other information Other information Content Description Content Description Description of film and video content Description of film and video content Develop subject terms and keywords Develop subject terms and keywords

28 Post-Digital Considerations Long term preservation of Film and Video Tape Long term preservation of Film and Video Tape Most important factor – stable and consistent temperature and humidity Most important factor – stable and consistent temperature and humidity Best situation for film: Freezer storage as this will slow any chemical reactions and breakdown of film Best situation for film: Freezer storage as this will slow any chemical reactions and breakdown of film Best situation for video tape: Refrigerated cold storage as this will create optimal conditions without damaging tape Best situation for video tape: Refrigerated cold storage as this will create optimal conditions without damaging tape

29 Post-Digital Considerations Create preservation backup and physical access copies Create preservation backup and physical access copies Digital file storage still an “unknown” in archives and is not for preservation – it is for wider access Digital file storage still an “unknown” in archives and is not for preservation – it is for wider access Depending on previous storage conditions, film can be and video tape is unstable archival media Depending on previous storage conditions, film can be and video tape is unstable archival media Film machines and older tape players are becoming antiquated and difficult to find or are very expensive Film machines and older tape players are becoming antiquated and difficult to find or are very expensive More modern tape formats (Beta SP, DV, etc…) are excellent migration media to ensure long term access and preservation More modern tape formats (Beta SP, DV, etc…) are excellent migration media to ensure long term access and preservation It is easy to create high quality new tape copies while transferring older media into digital formats It is easy to create high quality new tape copies while transferring older media into digital formats

30 Thank you very much! Stephen Maxner, Ph.D.


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